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Despite the salutary effects of mask wearing broadly recognized during the COVID-19 pandemic, little is known about the consequences of wearing masks in the workplace. The current research raises the question of whether and how mask wearing may impact employees' emotional well-being at work. Drawing on emotion regulation theory (e.g., Gross, 1998, 2015), we propose that mask wearing enables employees to adopt more authentic emotional displays, which in turn decreases emotional exhaustion. Furthermore, guided by the social interaction model of emotion regulation (Coté, 2005), we further posit that for employees whose work requires more frequent face-to-face interaction, the positive impact of mask wearing on emotional exhaustion becomes more significant. Across a pilot study and a three-wave field survey, we find support for this hypothesized model. Implications of these findings for future theorizing and research on mask wearing are discussed.
Iodine and thyroid hormones (TH) transport in the placenta are essential for fetal growth and development, but there is little research focus on the human placenta. The research aimed to investigate iodine and TH transport mechanisms in the human placenta. The placenta was collected from sixty healthy pregnant women. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC), serum iodine concentration (SIC), placenta iodine storage (PIS) and the concentration of serum and placenta TH were examined. Five pregnant women were selected as insufficient intake (II), adequate intake (AI) and above requirements intake (ARI) groups. Localisation/expression of placental sodium/iodide symporter (NIS) and Pendrin were also studied. Results showed that PIS positively correlated with the UIC (R = 0·58, P < 0·001) and SIC (R = 0·55, P < 0·001), and PIS was higher in the ARI group than that in the AI group (P = 0·017). NIS in the ARI group was higher than that in the AI group on the maternal side of the placenta (P < 0·05). NIS in the II group was higher than that in the AI group on the fetal side (P < 0·05). In the II group, NIS on the fetal side was higher than on the maternal side (P < 0·05). Pendrin was higher in the II group than in the AI group on the maternal side (P < 0·05). Free triiodothyronine (r = 0·44, P = 0·0067) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (r = 0·75, P < 0·001) between maternal and fetal side is positively correlated. This study suggests that maternal iodine intake changes the expression of NIS and Pendrin, thereby affecting PIS. Serum TH levels were not correlated with placental TH levels.
Iodine intake and excretion vary widely; however, these variations remain a large source of geometric uncertainty. The present study aims to analyse variations in iodine intake and excretion and provide implications for sampling in studies of individuals or populations. Twenty-four healthy women volunteers were recruited for a 12-d sampling period during the 4-week experiment. The duplicate-portion technique was used to measure iodine intake, while 24-h urine was collected to estimate iodine excretion. The mean intra-individual variations in iodine intake, 24-h UIE (24-h urinary iodine excretion) and 24-h UIC (24-h urinary iodine concentration) were 63, 48 and 55 %, respectively, while the inter-individual variations for these parameters were 14, 24 and 32 %, respectively. For 95 % confidence, approximately 500 diet samples or 24-h urine samples should be taken from an individual to estimate their iodine intake or iodine status at a precision range of ±5%. Obtaining a precision range of ±5% in a population would require twenty-five diet samples or 150 24-h urine samples. The intra-individual variations in iodine intake and excretion were higher than the inter-individual variations, which indicates the need for more samples in a study on individual participants.
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