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The classical taxonomy of fossil invertebrates is based on subjective judgments of morphology, which can cause confusion, because there are no codified standards for the classification of genera. Here, we explore the validity of the genus taxonomy of 75 species and morphospecies of the Follicucullidae, a late Paleozoic family of radiolarians, using a new method, Hayashi's quantification theory II (HQT-II), a general multivariate statistical method for categorical datasets relevant to discriminant analysis. We identify a scheme of 10 genera rather than the currently accepted 3 genera (Follicucullus, Ishigaconus, and Parafollicucullus). As HQT-II cannot incorporate stratigraphic data, a phylogenetic tree of Follicucullidae was reconstructed for 38 species using maximum parsimony. Six lineages emerged, roughly in concordance with the results of HQT-II. Combined with parsimony ancestral state reconstruction, the ancestral group of this family is Haplodiacanthus. Five other groups were discriminated, the Parafollicucullus, Curvalbaillella, Pseudoalbaillella, Longtanella, and Follicucullus–Cariver lineages. The morphological evolution of these lineages comprises a minimum essential list of eight states of four traits. HQT-II is a novel discriminant analytical multivariate method that may be of value in other taxonomic problems of paleobiology.
This paper describes a unique deepwater brachiopod fauna from the upper part of the Talung Formation at the Dongpan Section, southern Guangxi, South China. This brachiopod fauna includes 10 species belonging to 10 genera. New taxa are Anidanthus mucronata n. sp., Dongpanoproductus elegans n. gen. and sp., Costatumulus dongpanensis n. sp., and Spinomarginifera semicircridge n. sp. This fauna is characterized by small, thin-shelled species with high abundance and low diversity, and therefore is different in generic and species composition from the coeval faunas of the Late Permian limestone facies in South China. The brachiopod fauna can be safely assigned to the latest Changhsingian as indicated by the presence of abundant Paracrurithyris pigmaea, the immediately underlying radiolarian Neoalbaillella optima Zone of late Changhsingian age, and the overlying ammonoid Ophiceras sp. cf. O. tingi Tien of the lowest Triassic. This fauna is most likely to have lived in a deepwater environment as indicated by coexistence with the radiolarian Latentifistularia, small thin-shelled brachiopods, and the dominance of silica-bearing mudstone.
Caridroit, De Wever, and Dumitrica (1999) promoted stauraxon (Radiolaria) to an order, order Latentifistularia, and De Wever et al. (2001) proposed a classification using family and genus levels. However, the taxonomy of this order in genus level is still problematic because some genera were named according to broken specimens. A radiolarian fauna with a high diversity was collected from the late Changxingian in southern Guanxi, China. These specimens are very well preserved so that they are rare material for roundly describing the characters of some genera. They are identified as 42 species belonging to 16 genera and 5 families. Fifteen new species and one new genus are described, some genera are discussed, and some species are revised.
A well-preserved radiolarian fauna reported from the Changxing Formation in the Meishan D Section, Changxing, Zhejiang, China, mainly includes abundant Entactinia itsukaichiensis, Grandetortura nipponica, Copicyntra robustodentata, Lepingosphaera stauracanthus, and a few Entactinia meishanensis n. sp., Entactinia? sp., Entactinosphaera cimelia, Triaenosphaera sp., Tetragregnon sp., Paracopicyntra ziyunensis, Copicyntroides sp. cf. C. asteriformis, Copicyntroides sp., and Ishigum trifustis, with the conodont Neogondolella subcarinata Zone. One new species, Entactinia meishanensis, is described in this paper. This radiolarian fauna is characterized by low abundance and low diversity, and apparently occurred in a water depth of 150–200 m.
This paper describes a new genus Liaous, with L. shaiwensis He and Chen n. gen. n. sp. as the type species, from the Xinyuan Formation of Anisian age in Ziyun, southern Guizhou, China. The phylogenetic tree revealed by the parsimony analysis shows that Liaous is closely allied to both Mentzelia Quenstedt, 1871 and Paramentzelia Xu, 1978 of the subfamily Mentzeliinae. A new classification scheme for the Spiriferinoidea is also proposed based on a phylogenetic tree of the superfamily indicated by parsimony analysis. The Spiriferinoidea includes three families and nine subfamilies. Three new subfamilies—Madoinae He and Chen, new subfam., Qinghaispiriferininae He and Chen, new subfam., and Triadispirinae He and Chen, new subfam. are proposed. Liaous shaiwensis He and Chen n. gen. n. sp. is found in the Posidonia wengensis-Liaous shaiwensis (P-L) paleocommunity, which is dominated by r-strategists (i.e., organisms defined by a fauna with a high dominance and small body sizes) and has a low diversity and high dominance. The P-L paleocommunity therefore has little similarity to its coeval communities from the Anisian Stage of South China and instead it appears more similar to the Lower Triassic shelly faunas in community structures. This paleocommunity is interpreted to have inhabited a relatively deep, low-energy, dysaerobic offshore basin/slope setting with the influence of episodic storms.
A bivalve fauna from the Permian—Triassic interval of the Dongpan section, Guangxi, South China is described herein. This bivalve fauna includes 16 species belonging to 10 genera. New taxa are Euchondria fusuiensis, Palaeoneilo qinzhouensis, and Claraia liuqiaoensis. Bed 12 of the interval (Talung Formation) contains the typical late Late Permian ammonoids: Huananoceras sp., Laibinoceras cf. L. compressum Yang, and Qiangjiangoceras sp. Bed 13 (Luolou Formation) contains typical Early Triassic bivalves Claraia dieneri Nakazawa, C. cf. C. wangi (Patte), and C. griesbachi (Bittner), which coexist with the earliest Triassic ammonoid Ophiceras sp. The bivalve and ammonoid distributions at the Dongpan section indicate that bed 12 should be assigned to the Late Permian, and bed 13 should be assigned to the Early Triassic. From the early Changhsingian to the Induan, the byssal notches of Claraia species tend to become progressively narrower, and change from being ventrally extended to being horizontally extended. The species level diversity of Claraia also increases through this interval.
A delicate and well-preserved latest Permian radiolarian fauna was obtained from muddy siliceous rocks and siliceous mudstones in the Dongpan Section, southwest Guangxi, China. the specimens of family Albaillellidae in the fauna have been selected for taxonomic study in this paper. Two genera and 14 species belonging to this family are recognized and described, including three new species and one new subspecies, namely Neoalbaillella minuta, Albaillella flabellata, Albaillella fida, and Albaillella yaoi longa, respectively. This assemblage is correlated to the Neoalbaillella optima Assemblage Zone. Its biostratigraphic significance and the final extinction of Albaillellidae at the end of Late Permian are observed and discussed herein.
A new brachiopod fauna is described from the Early and Middle Permian of Zadoi and Zhidoi counties, southern Qinghai (Changdu block), northwest China. This fauna includes 13 species in nine genera with Spinomarginifera concentrica n. sp. and Transennatia waterhousei n. sp. the Early to Middle Permian brachiopod fauna from southern Qinghai is very similar to the contemporary Cathaysian faunas of South China with which the new fauna shares 70 per cent of its species. On the other hand, the Qinghai brachiopods also demonstrate a significant link with the Permian brachiopod fauna of the Sino-Mongolian-Japanese Province in northeast China, as suggested by Marginifera septentrionalis and Attenuatella. in particular, the occurrence of the bipolar brachiopod genus Attenuatella suggests that southern Qinghai may have played an important role as a biogeographic stepping stone in the marine faunal interchanges between the northern and southern hemispheres during the Early and Middle Permian.
The prevalence and factors associated with delays in help seeking for people with dementia in China are unknown.
Within 1,010 consecutively registered participants in the Clinical Pathway for Alzheimer's Disease in China (CPAD) study (NCT01779310), 576 persons with dementia (PWDs) and their informants reported the estimated time from symptom onset to first medical visit seeking diagnosis. Univariate analysis of general linear model was used to examine the potential factors associated with the delayed diagnosis seeking.
The median duration from the first noticeable symptom to the first visit seeking diagnosis or treatment was 1.77 years. Individuals with a positive family history of dementia had longer duration (p = 0.05). Compared with other types of dementia, people with vascular dementia (VaD) were referred for diagnosis earliest, and the sequence for such delays was: VaD < Alzheimer's disease (AD) < frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (p < 0.001). Subtypes of dementia (p < 0.001), family history (p = 0.01), and education level (p = 0.03) were associated with the increased delay in help seeking.
In China, seeking diagnosis for PWDs is delayed for approximately 2 years, even in well-established memory clinics. Clinical features, family history, and less education may impede help seeking in dementia care.
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