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This article describes an atomic force microscope (AFM) that can operate in any scanning electron microscope (SEM) or SEM combined with a focused ion-beam (FIB) column. The combination of AFM, SEM imaging, energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), FIB milling, and nanofabrication methods (field-emission scanning probe lithography, tip-based electron beam induced deposition, and nanomachining) provides a new tool for correlative nanofabrication and microscopy. Piezoresistive, thermo-mechanically actuated cantilevers (active cantilevers) are used for fast imaging and nanofabrication. Thus, the AFM with active cantilevers integrated into an SEM (AFMinSEM) can generate and characterize nanostructures in situ without breaking vacuum or contaminating the sample.
Attractive colloidal dispersions, suspensions of fine particles which aggregate and frequently form a space-spanning elastic gel are ubiquitous materials in society with a wide range of applications. The colloidal networks in these materials can exist in a mode of free settling when the network weight exceeds its compressive yield stress. An equivalent state occurs when the network is held fixed in place and used as a filter through which the suspending fluid is pumped. In either scenario, hydrodynamic instabilities leading to loss of network integrity occur. Experimental observations have shown that the loss of integrity is associated with the formation of eroded channels, so-called streamers, through which the fluid flows rapidly. However, the dynamics of growth and subsequent mechanism of collapse remain poorly understood. Here, a phenomenological model is presented that describes dynamically the radial growth of a streamer due to erosion of the network by rapid fluid back flow. The model exhibits a finite-time blowup – the onset of catastrophic failure in the gel – due to activated breaking of the inter-colloid bonds. Brownian dynamics simulations of hydrodynamically interacting and settling colloids in dilute gels are employed to examine the initiation and propagation of this instability, which are in good agreement with the theory. The model dynamics is also shown to accurately replicate measurements of streamer growth in two different experimental systems. The predictive capabilities and future improvements of the model are discussed and a stability-state diagram is presented providing insight into engineering strategies for avoiding settling instabilities in networks meant to have long shelf lives.
In the above mentioned article (Hofmann and Stockhammer 2017) there was an asterisk proceeding ‘Kerstin P. Hofmann’, which has now been moved to proceed ‘Philipp W. Stockhammer’ to indicate that both authors are corresponding authors for this article.
Whereas German-speaking archaeology (GSA) has long been understood as generally uninterested in theoretical debates, the situation has taken a most interesting development since the year 2000. Archaeologists tried to escape the general decline of the small university disciplines by getting more and more involved in the overarching research questions of cultural studies and in large-scale collaborative projects. The necessity of integrating a clear theoretical and methodological approach for a successful proposal and the subsequent research changed the significance of theoretical discussions. As a consequence, theme-oriented research has developed which aims at addressing overarching themes in the cultural and social sciences. We have chosen five of the most prominent themes in German-speaking archaeology – self-reflexivity, identities, space, cultural encounter and knowledge transfer – as well as material culture, and shed light on their theoretical conceptualization and methodological implementation in recent publications. Despite the lack of dominant schools of thinking, its strong rootedness in the evaluation of empirical sources, and its close link to the discipline of history, current GSA can contribute to the overall theoretical discourse of the discipline.
The diversity of the comments makes it an easy and a complex task to address them. It is an easy task, since each of the commentators presented clear yet widely ranging opinions about the extent and relevance of theories in GSA, which differ astonishingly – from accusations of just presenting ‘theory-lite’ (Veit) to the very positive view that there is even more relevant theoretical discussion in GSA than mentioned by us (Kristiansen). The surprisingly diverse comments lead us to suppose that we have probably found a middle ground between the pessimistic and the more optimistic perspectives. However, commenting on the responses is also a complex task, because the only way of doing justice to them is by discussing them individually.
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
The Hawthorne Effect is a prevalent observer effect that causes behavioral changes among participants of epidemiological studies or infection control interventions. The purpose of the review is to describe the origins of the Hawthorne Effect, to understand the term in relation to current scientific literature, to describe characteristics of the Hawthorne effect, and to discuss methods to quantify and overcome limitations associated with the Hawthorne Effect.
Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;36(12):1444–1450
The selfish goal metaphor is interesting and intriguing. It accounts for the idiosyncrasies and inconsistencies in peoples' goal pursuits without invoking free will, self-regulatory, or self-control failures. However, people pursue multiple goals, sometimes simultaneously. We argue that the model proposed in the target article may gain significant theoretical and practical value if the principles underlying goal selection and/or balancing on a moment-to-moment basis are clearly specified and integrated with the notion of the selfish goal.
A modified critical point model dielectric function for graphene is derived here and used to analyze spectroscopic ellipsometry data obtained over a wide spectral range from 3 to 9 eV. Critical point and exciton resonance energies are extracted and discussed. Our findings indicate that epitaxial graphene on SiC to exhibits equivalent exciton behavior to that of suspended graphene. We further apply our model dielectric function to evaluate dielectric function data for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite reported in the literature. Excellent agreement is found between the critical point model developed here and the literature data even for the low energy spectral range up to 1 eV.
We report on mid-infrared (600 – 4000 cm-1), refection-type optical-Hall effect measurements on epitaxial graphene grown on C-face silicon carbide and present Landau-level transition features detected at 1.5 K as a function of magnetic field up to 8 Tesla. The Landau-level transitions are detected in reflection configuration at oblique incidence for wavenumbers below, across and above the silicon carbide reststrahlen range. Small Landau-level transition features are enhanced across the silicon carbide reststrahlen range due to surface-guided wave coupling with the electronic Landau-level transitions in the graphene layer. We analyze the spectral and magnetic-field dependencies of the coupled resonances, and compare our findings with previously reported Landau-level transitions measured in transmission configuration [4,5,6]. Additional features resemble transitions previously assigned to bilayer inclusion , as well as graphite . We discuss a model description to account for the electromagnetic polarizability of the graphene layers, and which is sufficient for quantitative model calculation of the optical-Hall effect data.
Pulsed-laser-deposited ZnO thin films were exposed to a 1.5 MeV helium ion beam to study the changes in radiative and non-radiative recombination. We first measured photoluminescence (PL) spectra at 4.2 K excited with the 325 nm line of a HeCd laser. The as-deposited films showed a donor-bound exciton peak at 3.3567 eV attributed to Zn interstitials. After irradiation the donor-bound-exciton dominated PL spectra shifted to acceptor-bound behaviour with a signal at 3.3519 eV, tentatively attributed to Li or Na acceptors. In contrast to the approximately 30 % decrease of the PL signal near the band edge, we observed a strong concomitant enhancement of the green/orange PL band, located between 2.1 eV and 2.8 eV, by a factor of over 4. Candidates for those transitions are Li impurities and/or O vacancies. For comparison, the steady-state photocurrent decreased strongly in the irradiated region, which can also be attributed to increased non-radiative recombination through oxygen-related defects.
Four matrix-phase crystallographic directions of IN718 are investigated by in situ tensile tests using neutron diffraction. The elastic diffraction constants for all directions measured are compared to theoretical values calculated by the Kröner model. The differences between the microscopic and the macroscopic material response are given. The accumulation of microstrains in the different crystallographic directions is discussed. A comparison between the results of a single phase material (ingot IN718) and two differently thermal treated multiphase materials is presented.
We present the adaptive optics assisted, near-infrared VLTI instrument GRAVITY for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric phase referenced imaging of faint objects. With its two fibers per telescope beam, its internal wavefront sensors and fringe tracker, and a novel metrology concept, GRAVITY will not only push the sensitivity far beyond what is offered today, but will also advance the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 μas. GRAVITY is designed to work with four telescopes, thus providing phase referenced imaging and astrometry for 6 baselines simultaneously. Its unique capabilities and sensitivity will open a new window for the observation of a wide range of objects, and — amongst others — will allow the study of motion within a few times the event horizon size of the Galactic Center black hole.
The literature contains considerable disagreements on the relative stabilities of the members of the copper hydroxyl sulphate family. Titration of copper sulphate with sodium hydroxide is claimed by some to produce only brochantite, while other reports indicate that antlerite and a dihydrate of antlerite are produced in the titration. Most stability field diagrams show that antlerite is the more stable stoichiomer at pH 4 and sulphate activity of 0.05–1. We have reexamined this stoichiometric family by titration of aqueous copper sulphate with sodiumhydroxide and sodium carbonate, reverse titration of sodiumhydroxide with copper sulphate and simultaneous addition of copper sulphate and sodium hydroxide at a variety of mole ratios, concentrations, temperatures and reaction times. We have also explored the reaction of copper hydroxide with copper sulphate and the reaction of weak bases, such as sodiumacetate, sodiumcarbonate and urea, with copper sulphate. Our work indicates that: (1) antlerite is not formed in reactions of 0.05 to 1.2 M CuSO4 with 0.05–1.0 M NaOH or Na2CO3 at room temperature; (2) antlerite is formed in the addition of small concentrations of base (≤0.01 M) to 1 M CuSO4 at 80°C, but not at roomtem perature or with 0.01 M CuSO4 at 80°C; (3) the formation of Cu5(SO4)2(OH)6·4H2O occurs at large Cu2+ to base mole ratios; (4) the compound described in the literature as antlerite dihydrate is actually Cu5(SO4)2(OH)6.4H2O; (5) at mole ratios of Cu2+ to OH– ranging from 2:1 to 1:2 the predominant product is brochantite; and (6) brochantite and Cu5(SO4)2(OH)6.4H2O are converted to antlerite in the presence of 1 M CuSO4 (the latter requires temperatures of 80°C or greater).
The Ksp (ion activity product) values of antlerite and brochantite were determined to be 2.53 (0.01)⨯10−48 and 1.01 (0.01)⨯10−69, respectively, using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Visual MINTEQ after equilibration in solutions of varying ionic strength and pH for six days. These values are in good agreement with those from the literature. However, after 6 months, antlerite in contact with solution is partially converted to brochantite and hence is metastable with a relatively low conversion rate. The Ksp value for antlerite must therefore be considered approximate. The relative stabilities of the copper hydroxyl sulphates are rationalized using appropriate equations and Gibbs energy calculations. A Gibbs free energy of formation for Cu5(SO4)2(OH)6.4H2O of –3442 kJ/mol was obtained from the simple salt approximation.
In a particular success for translational research agendas, characterization of the neuronal circuits underlying fear extinction, and basic research in animal extinction paradigms, has led to intervention studies examining the use of D-cycloserine (DCS) to enhance therapeutic learning from exposure-based cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). In this article, we review these intervention studies, and discuss DCS augmentation of CBT relative to more traditional combination-treatment strategies in the treatment of anxiety disorders. We offer an accounting, based on evidence for internal context effects, of current limitations in the combination of antidepressant or benzodiazepine medications with CBT and discuss the advantages of isolated-dosing strategies with DCS relative to these limitations. This strategy is contrasted with the chronic-dosing applications of DCS for schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, and future directions for isolated-dosing strategies are discussed.