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The widespread promotion of management ideas, their regular inclusion in textbooks and business school curricula and their use in organizational change programs has engendered debates about the impact of these ideas on management and organizational practice. Based on analyses of managerial audience members' activities and related meaning-making prior to, during and after guru events with leading management thinkers, this book sheds new light on how management practitioners come to use management ideas in the different relevant contexts of their working lives. The authors argue that a broader, more differentiated and more dynamic view of managerial audiences is essential in understanding the impact of management ideas as well as the nature of contemporary managerial work. For scholars and students in organisation studies, knowledge management and management consultancy, as well as reflective management practitioners.
It is no exaggeration to say that American health policy is frequently subordinated to budgetary policies and procedures. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) was undeniably ambitious, reaching health care services and underlying health as well as health insurance. Yet fiscal politics determined the ACA’s design and guided its implementation, as well as sometimes assisting and sometimes constraining efforts to repeal or replace it. In particular, the ACA’s vulnerability to litigation has been the price its drafters paid in exchange for fiscal-political acceptability. Future health care reformers should consider whether the nation is well served by perpetuating such an artificial relationship between financial commitments and health returns.
Advanced imaging techniques are enhancing research capacity focussed on the developmental origins of adult health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, and consequently increasing awareness of future health risks across various subareas of DOHaD research themes. Understanding how these advanced imaging techniques in animal models and human population studies can be both additively and synergistically used alongside traditional techniques in DOHaD-focussed laboratories is therefore of great interest. Global experts in advanced imaging techniques congregated at the advanced imaging workshop at the 2019 DOHaD World Congress in Melbourne, Australia. This review summarizes the presentations of new imaging modalities and novel applications to DOHaD research and discussions had by DOHaD researchers that are currently utilizing advanced imaging techniques including MRI, hyperpolarized MRI, ultrasound, and synchrotron-based techniques to aid their DOHaD research focus.
To detect modest associations of dietary intake with disease risk, observational studies need to be large and control for moderate measurement errors. The reproducibility of dietary intakes of macronutrients, food groups and dietary patterns (vegetarian and Mediterranean) was assessed in adults in the UK Biobank study on up to five occasions using a web-based 24-h dietary assessment (n 211 050), and using short FFQ recorded at baseline (n 502 655) and after 4 years (n 20 346). When the means of two 24-h assessments were used, the intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) for macronutrients varied from 0·63 for alcohol to 0·36 for polyunsaturated fat. The ICC for food groups also varied from 0·68 for fruit to 0·18 for fish. The ICC for the FFQ varied from 0·66 for meat and fruit to 0·48 for bread and cereals. The reproducibility was higher for vegetarian status (κ > 0·80) than for the Mediterranean dietary pattern (ICC = 0·45). Overall, the reproducibility of pairs of 24-h dietary assessments and single FFQ used in the UK Biobank were comparable with results of previous prospective studies using conventional methods. Analyses of diet–disease relationships need to correct for both measurement error and within-person variability in dietary intake in order to reliably assess any such associations with disease in the UK Biobank.
The Value of Ecocriticism offers a brief, incisive overview of the fast-changing field of environmental literary criticism in a bewildering age of global environmental threat. The intellectual, moral and political complexity of environmental issues, especially at the global scale (the so-called 'Anthropocene') forms a new challenge of inventiveness for both literature and criticism. Ecocriticism has been going through a period of radical change and has become a diverse and huge field on the exciting but unstable boundary between the humanities and the sciences, with a mix of cultural, political, scientific and activist strands. Its mantra is that the environmental crisis demands a reconsideration of society's basic values, constitution and purposes, and that art and literature can be vital in that work. As a leading figure in this field, Timothy Clark surveys recent developments in ecocriticism lucidly, but also sometimes critically. This book examines ecopoetics, material ecocriticism, and the ideas of world literature as well as contentious claims that we are living in a new geological epoch.
Breast milk is the only source of the essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) in breast-fed infants. Low levels of TRP could have implications for infant neurodevelopment. The objectives of the present study were to compare the relationship of TRP and its neuroactive pathway metabolites kynurenine (Kyn) and kynurenic acid (KynA) in preterm and term expressed breast milk (EBM) in the first 14 d following birth, and the relationship of TRP metabolism to maternal stress and immune status. A total of twenty-four mothers were recruited from Cork University Maternity Hospital: twelve term (>38 weeks) and twelve preterm (<35 weeks). EBM samples were collected on days 7 and 14. Free TRP, Kyn and KynA were measured using HPLC, total TRP using MS, cytokines using the Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) assay system, and cortisol using a cortisol ELISA kit. Although total TRP was higher in preterm EBM in comparison with term EBM (P < 0·05), free TRP levels were lower (P < 0·05). Kyn, KynA and the Kyn:TRP ratio increased significantly in term EBM from day 7 to day 14 (P < 0·05), but not in preterm EBM. TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 were higher in day 7 preterm and term EBM in comparison with day 14. There were no significant differences between term and preterm EBM cortisol levels. Increased availability of total TRP, lower levels of free TRP and alterations in the temporal dynamics of TRP metabolism in preterm compared with term EBM, coupled with higher EBM inflammatory markers on day 7, may have implications for the neurological development of exclusively breast-fed preterm infants.