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Silicon germanium (SiGe) is considered to substitute silicon (Si) as channel material of p-type MOSFET in future CMOS generations due to its higher hole mobility. In this work we investigate SiGe channels with a germanium concentration of 23 at% and 30 at%, even though the mobility is expected to be higher with even more germanium in the alloy. Low pressure chemical vapor deposition was used for SiGe deposition. A state of the art CMOS process including high-k dielectric and metal gate electrode was applied for fabrication of sub 50 nm gate length devices. As expected from the SiGe channel conduction and valence band offset the threshold voltage of the devices is influenced. The gate stack was directly deposited onto the SiGe layer consisting of a chemically grown base oxide, hafnium-based dielectric and titanium nitride gate electrode. C-V and I-V measurements show comparable CET and leakage values for the high-k metal gate stack on Si and SiGe channels. The trap density at the channel dielectric interface was determined using the charge pumping technique. The device characteristics of n- and p-MOSFETs with SiGe channels are compared to conventional Si channel devices. Short channel mobility was extracted with the gM,LIN-Method.
At the 65 nm node, silicide faces formidable challenges. Co is the current process of record for most integrated circuit manufacturers and thus becomes baseline silicide for 65 nm. However, Ni is the likely replacement. Both silicides are challenged to meet the requirements at the 65 nm node. This manuscript reviews the current CoSi2 challenges (dopant interactions, Ge interactions, linewidth extendibility, impurity effects, agglomeration issues, etc). Ni consumes less Si but has its own challenges, including issues with contact leakage and thermal budget, excessive diffusion and oxidation, interactions with dopant and impurities. Both silicides have formation and stability issues in the presence of Ge. Additions of Ge increase the temperature at which a low resistance CoSi2 is formed due to film segregation into CoSi2 and Ge-rich Si-Ge grains. With Ni, additions of Ge decrease the temperature at which NiSi converts to a NiSi2, lead to agglomeration at a lower temperature and lead to germanosilicide formation.
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