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We know that suicide is preventable, yet hundreds of thousands of people still die due to suicide every year. Many interventions were proven to be effective, and dozens of others showed promising results. However, translating these interventions into new settings brings several challenges. One of the crucial obstacles to success is not anticipating possible barriers to implementation nor enhancing possible benefits of factors facilitating the implementation. While we witnessed great support for suicide prevention activities globally in the past years, implementation barriers and facilitating factors are yet to be comprehensively mapped to help implementation activities worldwide. This scoping review maps current knowledge on facilitators and barriers to the implementation of suicide prevention interventions while using the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) for classification. We included 64 studies. Barriers and facilitators were most commonly identified in the outer setting CFIR domain, namely in the sub-domain of patient needs and resources, which refers to the way in which these needs and resources are reflected by the reviewed interventions. The second most saturated CFIR domain for facilitators was intervention characteristics, where relative advantage, adaptability and cost of intervention sub-domains were equally represented. These sub-domains refer mostly to how the intervention is perceived by key stakeholders, to what extent it can be tailored to the implementation context and how much it costs. While intervention characteristics domain was the second most common also for barriers, the complexity sub-domain referring to high perceived difficulty of implementation was the most frequently represented. With reference to the results, we recommend adapting interventions to the needs of the target groups. Furthermore, carefully selecting the intervention to suit the target context concerning their adaptability, costs and complexity is vital for a successful implementation. Further implications for practice and research are discussed.
The unique one-dimensional electronic and optical properties attributed to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are mainly related to the peculiar local arrangement of sp2 hybridised carbon atoms. This structural configuration gives raise to interesting features, which can be identified with various spectroscopic techniques. In the case of SWCNTs, high energy spectroscopy methods represent effective key tools to analyse the modifications of the underlying basic correlation effects in the bonding environment, the charge transfer between functionalized nanotubes, and on-wall doping. More specifically, in this article we review the shape of the C1s photoemission (PES) response related to the density of states (DOS) of the valence band (VB) in SWCNTs and its changes upon on-wall functionalization and metallicity-sorting. In the last, the progress in the identification of changes in the site selective valence-band electronic structure is clarified in detail.
The use of natural environmentally benign agents in the treatment of drinking water is rapidly gaining interest due to their inherently renewable character and low toxicity. We show that the common Mexican cactus produces a gum-like substance, cactus mucilage, which shows excellent flocculating abilities and is an economically viable alternative for low-income communities. Cactus mucilage is a neutral mixture of approximately 55 high-molecular weight sugar residues composed basically of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, xylose, and galacturonic acid. We show how this natural product was characterized for its use as a flocculating agent. Our results show the mucilage efficiency for reducing arsenic and particulates from drinking water as determined by light scattering, Atomic Absorption and Hydride Generation-Atomic Fluorescence Spectroscopy. Flocculation studies proved the mucilage to be a much faster flocculating agent when compared to Al2(SO4)3 with the efficiency increasing with mucilage concentration. Jar tests revealed that lower concentrations of mucilage provided the optimal effectiveness for supernatant clarity, an important factor in determining the potability of water. Initial filter results with the mucilage embedded in a silica matrix prove the feasibility of applying this technology as a method for heavy metal removal. This project provides fundamental, quantitative insights into the necessary and minimum requirements for natural flocculating agents that are innovative, environmentally benign, and cost-effective.