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HMGR, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, is a major rate-limiting enzyme in mevalonate (MVA) pathway for isoprenoids and subsequent tanshinone biosynthesis in the Chinese traditional bulk herbal medicine Danshen, Salvia miltiorrhiza, mainly for cardiovascular disorders. In this paper, the genomic SmHMGR genes of 38 cultivated populations of S. miltiorrhiza collected in China were for the first time sequenced to reveal the genetic diversity and phylogeny. The SmHMGR gene was shown to be intron-free, 1650~1659 bp in complete CDS with the majority being 1656 bp, and two unique populations (W-FJLY-V-1 and W-SCHY-W-1) being 1659 and 1650 bp respectively. A total of 103 SNP variation sites were detected with a variation rate of 6.22%, most of which occurred in S. miltiorrhiza f. alba population W-SCHY-W-1; a total of 25 amino acid variation sites were found, of which 19 was in W-SCHY-W-1. The same four populations, W-SCHY-W-1, V-HBAG-V-1, V-JLCC-V-1 and S-NM-V-1 could be discriminated from the remaining 34 by both the SNP fingerprints and the deduced amino acid variation sites. Other or composite DNA markers are needed for better identification. The SmHMGR gene of white flower S. miltiorrhiza f. alba population W-SCHY-W-1 is especially rich in variations and worthy of further studies. Phylogenetic trees based on both the gene and the deduced amino acid sequences showed a very similar two-clade topological structure. This research enriched the content and the genetic means for the molecular identification, genetic diversity and phylogenetic studies of the cultivated S. miltiorrhiza populations, and laid a solid foundation for further related and in-depth investigations.
CrFeNiTix (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6 molar ratio) compositionally complex alloys were fabricated by vacuum arc melting to investigate the microstructure, hardness, and compressive properties. The results revealed that CrFeNiTix alloys consisted of the principal face-centered cubic (FCC) phase and body-centered cubic (BCC) solid solution, with an amount of (Ni, Ti)-rich hexagonal close-packed phase. CrFeNiTix alloys exhibited the typical dendrite. Ti0.2 and Ti0.3 alloys were composed of FCC and BCC solid solutions in the dendrite, as well as ε (Ni3Ti) and R (Ni2.67Ti1.33) phases in the inter-dendrite, simultaneously. For Ti0.4, Ti0.5, and Ti0.6 alloys, (Fe, Cr)-rich solid solution separated out and ε phase transformed into R phase gradually. Meanwhile, TEM analysis indicated that Ti0.4 alloy matrix consisted of the principal FCC phase containing (Ni, Ti)-rich intragranular nanoprecipitates. The hardness values of CrFeNiTix alloys were increased with the addition of Ti content and the high compressive strength of CrFeNiTix alloys was maintained, which was attributed to the solid solution strengthening and precipitation hardening.
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