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The most important issue for the clinical application of sarcopenic obesity (SO) is the lack of a consensus definition. The aim of the present study was to determine the best measurement for SO by estimating the association between various definitions and the risk of falls and metabolic syndrome (MS). We studied a community of 765 adults aged 65 years and older in 2015–2017. Sarcopenia obesity was measured by sarcopenia (defined by low muscle mass with either low handgrip strength or low gait speed or both) plus obesity (defined by waist circumference, body fat percentage and BMI). The MS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program ATP III. Logistic regression models were constructed to examine the relationships between sarcopenia obesity and risk of fall and MS. In the analysis of the fall risk with SO defined by waist circumference, the participants with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were treated as the reference group. The OR to fall in participants with SO was 10·16 (95 % CI 2·71, 38·13) after adjusting for confounding covariates. In the analysis of the risk of the MS between participants with individual components of sarcopenia coupled with obesity defined by waist circumference, the risk was statistically significant for low gait speed (OR: 7·19; 95 % CI 3·61, 14·30) and low grip strength (OR: 9·19; 95 % CI 5·00, 16·91). A combination of low grip strength and abdominal obesity for identifying SO may be a more precise and practical method for predicting target populations with unfavourable health risks, such as falls risk and MS.
The objective of this study was to investigate how different obesity measures link to circulating metabolites, and whether the connections are due to genetic or environmental factors. A cross-sectional analysis was performed on follow-up survey data at the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), which was conducted in four areas of China (Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Sichuan) in 2013. The survey collected detailed questionnaire information and conducted physical examinations, fasting blood sampling and untargeted metabolomic measurements among 439 adult twins. Linear regression models and bioinformatics analysis were used to examine the relation of obesity measures, including body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) with serum metabolite levels and related pathways. A co-twin control study was additionally conducted among 15 obesity-discordant monozygotic (MZ) pairs (intrapair BMI difference >3 kg/m2) to examine any differences in metabolites controlling for genetic factors. Eleven metabolites were associated with BMI, WC and WHR after controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors. Pathway analysis identified pathways such as phenylalanine metabolism, purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis that were associated with obesity. A wide range of unfavorable alterations in the serum metabolome was associated with obesity. Obesity-discordant twin analysis suggests that these associations are independent of genetic liability.
Narrowband microwave generation with tuneable frequency is demonstrated by illuminating a photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) with a burst-mode fibre laser. The whole system is composed of a high-power linearly polarized burst-mode pulsed fibre laser and a linear-state PCSS. To obtain a high-performance microwave signal, a desired envelope of burst is necessary and a pulse pre-compensation technique is adopted to avoid envelope distortion induced by the gain-saturation effect. Resulting from the technique, homogenous peak power distribution in each burst is ensured. The maximum energy of the laser burst pulse reaches 200 μJ with a burst duration of 100 ns at the average power of 10 W, corresponding to a peak power of 4 kW. When the PCSS is illuminated by the burst-mode fibre laser, narrowband microwave generation with tuneable frequency (0.80–1.12 GHz) is obtained with a power up to 300 W. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, it is the first demonstration of frequency-tuneable narrowband microwave generation based on a fibre laser. The high-power burst-mode fibre laser reported here has great potential for generating high-power arbitrary microwave signals for a great deal of applicable demands such as smart adaptive radar and intelligent high-power microwave systems.
The aim of the present study is to determine whether plasma bile acids (BAs) could be used as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker to distinguish patients with schizophrenia from healthy controls. Seventeen different BAs were quantitatively measured in plasma of 12 healthy participants and 12 patients with schizophrenia. Then, the data were subjected to correlation and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The concentrations of cholic acid (CA), taurochenodeoxycholic acid (TCDCA) and taurodeoxycholic acid (TDCA) were significantly decreased in plasma of the schizophrenia patients. Correlation analysis showed the concentrations of CA, TCDCA and TDCA were negatively correlated with schizophrenia. In addition, LDA demonstrated that combination of CA, TCDCA and TDCA with a classification formula could predict correctly classified cases and the accuracy of prediction was up to 95.83%. Combination of the three BAs may be useful to diagnose schizophrenia in plasma samples.
Iron walnut, Juglans sigillata Dode, restricted to southwestern China, has its centre of distribution in Yunnan Province which has a varied climate, geography and rich plant diversity. Yunnan contains abundant J. sigillata germplasm. In this study, a provincial-scale set of walnut germplasm resources (14 populations comprising 1122 individuals) was evaluated for genetic diversity based on 20 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci. The number of SSR alleles per locus ranged from 7 to 27, with an average of 17.55. Mean allelic richness and mean private allelic richness ranged from 3.40 to 4.62 and 0.11 to 0.36, with average of 3.93 and 0.30, respectively. Expected heterozygosity (He) varied from 0.26 to 0.78, with an average of 0.57. Polymorphism information content ranged from 0.22 to 0.79, with an average of 0.57. Genetic differentiation (FST) was 0.05, indicating that only 5% of total genetic variability was inter-populational, a finding supported by an analysis of molecular variance and STRUCTURE analysis. Relatively high gene flow (Nm = 6.70) was observed between populations. A unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic analysis classified the 14 populations into two major groups. Mantel testing uncovered a significant correlation between geographic distance and genetic distance (r = 0.33, P = 0.04). Overall, the research revealed a moderately high level of genetic diversity in the germplasm and low genetic differentiation among populations, which showed great potential for further development and exploitation of this resource.
Understanding the patterns of treatment response is critical for the treatment of patients with schizophrenia; one way to achieve this is through using a longitudinal dynamic process study design.
This study aims to explore the response trajectory of antipsychotics and compare the treatment responses of seven different antipsychotics over 6 weeks in patients with schizoprenia (trial registration: Chinese Clinical Trials Registry Identifier: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934).
Data were collected from a multicentre, randomised open-label clinical trial. Patients were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline and follow-up at weeks 2, 4 and 6. Trajectory groups were classified by the method of k-means cluster modelling for longitudinal data. Trajectory analyses were also employed for the seven antipsychotic groups.
The early treatment response trajectories were classified into a high-trajectory group of better responders and a low-trajectory group of worse responders. The results of trajectory analysis showed differences compared with the classification method characterised by a 50% reduction in PANSS scores at week 6. A total of 349 patients were inconsistently grouped by the two methods, with a significant difference in the composition ratio of treatment response groups using these two methods (χ2 = 43.37, P < 0.001). There was no differential contribution of high- and low trajectories to different drugs (χ2 = 12.52, P = 0.051); olanzapine and risperidone, which had a larger proportion in the >50% reduction at week 6, performed better than aripiprazole, quetiapine, ziprasidone and perphenazine.
The trajectory analysis of treatment response to schizophrenia revealed two distinct trajectories. Comparing the treatment responses to different antipsychotics through longitudinal analysis may offer a new perspective for evaluating antipsychotics.
Rare earth elements (REE) in marine minerals have been widely used as proxies for the redox status of depositional and/or diagenetic environments. Phosphate nodules, which are thought to grow within decimetres below the sediment–water interface and to be able to scavenge REE from the ambient pore water, are potential archives of subtle changes in REE compositions. Whether their REE signals represent specific redox conditions or they can be used to track the overlying water chemistry is worth exploring. Through in situ laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we investigate the REE compositions of a drill-core-preserved phosphate nodule from the lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in the Daotuo area, northeastern Guizhou Province, South China. REE distributions of the nodule show concentric layers with systematic decreases in Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*) from the core to the rim. The lowest Ce/Ce* appears in the outer rim where REE concentrations are relatively high. These results are interpreted to reflect REE exchange with pore water at a very early stage or bathymetric variation during apatite precipitation. The origin of the shale-normalized middle REE (MREE) enrichment in our sample is less constrained. Possible driving factors include preferential MREE substitution for Ca in the apatite lattice, degradation of organic matter and deposition beneath a ferruginous zone. Although speculative, the last possibility is consistent with the chemically stratified model for early Cambrian oceans, in which dynamic fluctuations of the chemocline provided an ideal depositional context for phosphogenesis.
Dysregulation in hepatic lipid synthesis by excess dietary carbohydrate intake is often relevant with the occurrence of fatty liver; therefore, the thorough understanding of the regulation of lipid deposition and metabolism seems crucial to search for potential regulatory targets. In the present study, we examined TAG accumulation, lipid metabolism-related gene expression, the enzyme activities of lipogenesis-related enzymes, the protein levels of transcription factors or genes involving lipogenesis in the livers of yellow catfish fed five dietary carbohydrate sources, such as glucose, maize starch, sucrose, potato starch and dextrin, respectively. Generally speaking, compared with other carbohydrate sources, dietary glucose promoted TAG accumulation, up-regulated lipogenic enzyme activities and gene expressions, and down-regulated mRNA expression of genes involved in lipolysis and small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) modification pathways. Further studies found that sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), a key transcriptional factor relevant to lipogenic regulation, was modified by SUMO1. Mutational analyses found two important sites for SUMOylation modification (K254R and K264R) in SREBP1. Mutant SREBP lacking lysine 264 up-regulated the transactivation capacity on an SREBP-responsive promoter. Glucose reduced the SUMOylation level of SREBP1 and promoted the protein expression of SREBP1 and its target gene stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), indicating that SUMOylation of SREBP1 mediated glucose-induced hepatic lipid metabolism. Our study elucidated the molecular mechanism of dietary glucose increasing hepatic lipid deposition and found that the SREBP-dependent transactivation was regulated by SUMO1 modification, which served as a new target for the transcriptional programmes governing lipid metabolism.
Surface modification of titanium and titanium alloys is a common method to improve anchoring of bone tissue and implants in hard tissue engineering applications. In the current work, a combination of chemical and physical methods (anodization and physical vapor deposition) was used to roughen the titanium surface and deposit iron (Fe) on the surface of titanium at different thicknesses. The optimized thickness of 100 Å was selected for mechanical and biological characterization. We found that anodization increases the surface roughness of Ti from 21 ± 0 to 229 ± 9 nm, whereas Fe deposition does not change it significantly. Our results also showed that surface modification of Ti by anodization increases the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells at both time points, whereas Fe-deposited samples showed the lowest cellular activity. These results suggest that Fe-deposited Ti implants may be suitable candidates for patients with osteosarcoma, as the proliferation of malignant cells decreases in the presence of Fe.
The advantage of alcohol–calcium method on the formation and the stability of vaterite against ethanol–water binary solvents (EWBS) method was studied through comparative experiment. The polymorphs and morphologies of CaCO3 were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results show that vaterite slowly decreases from 90.4 to 82.5% as increasing aging time from 0 to 1320 min in alcohol–calcium system, while quickly decreases from 46.5% to 0% at the same aging time in EWBS system. The similar variation as reaction temperature was found in both systems. SEM images indicate that calcite presents its typical rhombohedral morphology in both systems, while the morphologies of vaterite particles in two systems are different. In alcohol–calcium system, small vaterite nanoparticles aggregate into spherical microparticles, and these microparticles become porous, loose, and irregular, even incomplete, as increasing aging time and reaction temperature, while in EWBS system, vaterite nanoparticles aggregate into irregular microparticles. The advantage of alcohol–calcium method was discussed from the formation of the complex compound CaCl2·n(C2H5OH) in alcohol and its decomplexation in aqueous medium.
The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.
Maternal supraphysiological estradiol (E2) environment during pregnancy leads to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, the influence of oocyte exposure to high E2 levels on perinatal outcomes remains unknown. Thus, a retrospective cohort study was conducted to explore the effect of high E2 level induced by controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) on further outcomes after frozen embryo transfer (FET). The study included all FET cycles (n = 10,581) between 2014 and 2017. All cycles were categorized into three groups according to the E2 level on the day of the human Chorionic Gonadotropin trigger. Odds ratios (ORs) and their confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to evaluate the association between E2 level during COH and pregnancy outcomes and subsequent neonatal outcomes. From our findings, higher E2 level was associated with lower percentage of chemical pregnancy, clinical pregnancy, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth as well as increased frequency of early miscarriage. Preterm births were more common among singletons in women with higher E2 level during COH (aOR1 = 1.93, 95% CI: 1.22–3.06; aOR2 = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.33–3.06). Incidence of small for gestational age (SGA) was more common in both singletons (aOR1 = 2.01, 95% CI: 1.30–3.11; aOR2 = 2.51, 95% CI: 1.69–3.74) and multiples (aOR1 = 1.58, 95% CI: 1.03–2.45; aOR2 = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.05–3.84) among women with relatively higher E2 level. No association was found between high E2 level during COH and the percentage of macrosomia or large for gestational age. In summary, oocyte exposure to high E2 level during COH should be brought to our attention, since the pregnancy rate decreasing and the risk of preterm birth and SGA increasing following FET.
The Sichuan–Yunnan–Guizhou (SYG) Pb–Zn metallogenic province is one of the most productive areas of Pb–Zn resources in China. The Fule deposit occurs in Permian carbonate and contains Pb–Zn reserves exceeding 1 Mt. To investigate the sulphur source, in situ S isotopic analysis of sphalerite and pyrite was carried out using nanoscale secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The results show that the δ34S values of the sulphide minerals range from +16.1‰ to +23.0‰, higher than that of marine sulphates hosted in Permian carbonate rocks (+11‰), but similar to that of sulphates over a broader area (+12.9‰ to +25.9‰). The sulphates in the regional rocks could therefore represent an important source of S for the Fule deposit via thermochemical sulphate reduction. The S source of the Fule deposit is different from those of most other Pb–Zn deposits in the SYG Pb–Zn mineralization province, which were mainly derived from the ore-bearing strata. The δ34S values of the early to late generations and some single sulphide crystals from the cores to rims show a slight increasing trend, implying that partial Rayleigh fractionation took place in the Fule deposit. It is suggested that the Fule sulphide precipitation resulted from the mixing of a metalliferous fluid with a H2S-rich fluid derived from the regional strata. Combining the geology, mineralogy and S isotope results with previous Pb isotope studies, it is suggested that the Fule deposit should be attributed to a Mississippi Valley type deposit.
The widespread, rapid evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds is a serious and escalating agronomic problem worldwide. During China’s economic boom, the country became one of the most important herbicide producers and consumers in the world, and herbicide resistance has dramatically increased in the past decade and has become a serious threat to agriculture. Here, following an evidence-based PRISMA (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) approach, we carried out a systematic review to quantitatively assess herbicide resistance in China. Multiple weed species, including 26, 18, 11, 9, 5, 5, 4, and 3 species in rice (Oryza sativa L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], corn (Zea mays L.), canola (Brassica napus L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)., orchards, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) fields, respectively, have developed herbicide resistance. Acetolactate synthase inhibitors, acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitors, and synthetic auxin herbicides are the most resistance-prone herbicides and are the most frequently used mechanisms of action, followed by 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase inhibitors and protoporphyrinogen oxidase inhibitors. The lack of alternative herbicides to manage weeds that exhibit cross-resistance or multiple resistance (or both) is an emerging issue and poses one of the greatest threats challenging the crop production and food safety both in China and globally.