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To understand the lubrication-dominated permeation through a membrane, numerical simulations of permeation through a moving corrugated permeable membrane is carried out with a fully validated numerical method. Through comparisons between the numerical results and the results of an asymptotic analysis of permeate flux (under an infinitesimal permeability condition) using Reynolds lubrication equation, the effect of permeation on lubrication and its inverse effect (i.e., the dependence of permeation on lubrication) are discussed. The linear and non-linear dependences of the relaxation of the lubrication pressure due to membrane permeation are identified. The effect of the tangential component of the permeate flux is evaluated by a linear analysis, and the limitation of Reynolds-type lubrication is discussed.
We estimate the column density of the Galactic foreground interstellar medium (GFISM) in the direction of extragalactic sources. All-sky AKARI FIS infrared sky survey data might be used to trace the GFISM with a resolution of 2 arcminutes. The AKARI based GFISM hydrogen column density estimates are compared with similar quantities based on HI 21cm measurements of various resolution and of Planck results. High spatial resolution observations of the GFISM may be important recalculating the physical parameters of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using the updated foreground parameters.
Early results from the SAGE-SMC (Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the tidally-disrupted, low-metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud) Spitzer legacy program are presented. These early results concentrate on the SAGE-SMC MIPS observations of the SMC Tail region. This region is the high H i column density portion of the Magellanic Bridge adjacent to the SMC Wing. We detect infrared dust emission and measure the gas-to-dust ratio in the SMC Tail and find it similar to that of the SMC Body. In addition, we find two embedded cluster regions that are resolved into multiple sources at all MIPS wavelengths.
The formation of stellar clusters is one of the biggest issues in Astronomy. In our Galaxy, the currently formed
clusters are only open clusters; no “young” globular clusters have been observed. On the other hand, in the LMC,
stellar clusters called “populous clusters” are found to be forming at present. Comparative studies of young stars
as well as the properties of giant molecular clouds both in our Galaxy and LMC are therefore of vital importance.
We present here the statistical comparison of the distribution of YSOs with that of CO molecular clouds detected by
the NANTEN CO survey throughout the entire galaxy. The Spizter/SAGE dataset provides the most comprehensive and complete knowledge
on how and where the YSOs are distributed in the LMCs for the first time. The distribution of SAGE sources with a cold
spectrum shows good correlation with that of molecular clouds, indicating that these sources are good candidates for YSOs.
Theory predicts the triggered formation of molecular clouds stars through the fragmentation and collapse of swept-up ambient gas. Yet the majority of Galactic HI shells show no more than a scattering of small molecular clouds. The Carina Flare supershell (Fukui et al. 1999) is a rare example of an HI shell with a striking molecular component. Here we present the large-scale morphology of the molecular and atomic gas and the location of YSO candidates. A detailed look at two molecular clumps in the shell walls reveals active, intermediate mass star forming regions at various stages of early evolution.
In order to elucidate star formation in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a complete survey of the molecular clouds was carried out by NANTEN. In this work, we compare 230 giant molecular clouds (GMCs), whose physical quantities are well determined, with young clusters and Hii regions. We find that about 76% of the GMCs are actively forming stars or clusters, while 24% show no signs of massive star or cluster formation. Effects of supergiant shells (SGSs) on the formation of GMCs and stars are also studied. The number and surface mass densities of the GMCs are higher by a factor of 1.5–2 at the edge of the SGSs than elsewhere. It is also found that young stellar clusters are more actively formed in the GMCs facing to the center of the SGSs. These results are consistent with the previous studies by Yamaguchi et al. and suggest the formation of GMCs and the cluster is triggered by dynamical effects of the SGSs.
The new molecular image obtained by NANTEN telescope in the galactic center has revealed the existence of the two loop like structures, loop 1 and loop 2, which have never been seen before toward l = 355° to 358°. The velocities of loop 1 and loop 2 are −180 to −90 km s−1 and −90 and −40 km s−1, respectively, and these two loops have strong velocity gradients. The foot points of the loops show a very broad linewidth of ~40 to 80 km s−1 whose large velocity spans are characteristic of the molecular gas near the galactic center. Therefore, we classified the loops as being located in the galactic center and adopt a distance of 8.5 kpc. Then, the projected lengths of loop 1 and loop 2 were estimated as ~500 and ~300 pc, respectively and velocity gradients corresponds to ~80 km s−1 per 250 pc along loop 1 and ~60 km s−1 per 150 pc along loop 2. The heights of these loops are also estimated as ~220 to ~300 pc from the galactic plane, significantly higher than the typical scale height in the nuclear disk.
External shock triggering and internal turbulence play major role for the condensation of the ISM and star formation. Some evidences of shock triggering by non-isotropic compression are seen in the cloud morphologies and associated active cluster formation such as the ρ Oph and Cha I clouds. Surveys for C18O dense cores have shown that internal turbulence dominates the core dynamics and regulates star formation activity (Tachihara et al. 2002).
In this contribution, we will overview the NANTEN observations of molecular clouds faced to H II regions, supershells, and interacting galaxies, which demonstrate that star/molecular cloud formation is being triggered by young OB associations, supershells, and collisions between galaxies. The large volume filling factor of explosive events like supernovae, ultraviolet radiation fields and stellar winds of massive stars suggest that most of the interstellar medium has been agitated by such strong impacts and triggered star formation is a common event at all scales from small molecular clouds to large galaxy-galaxy mergers. The consequence is the increase of star formation efficiency in many cases, and that more massive stars or clusters of more member stars tend to be formed by triggering than in spontaneous star formation.
We have made a 12CO(J = 1−0) survey of the LMC with NANTEN. A sample of 55 giant molecular clouds has been identified and comparisons with stellar clusters, HII regions and SNRs are presented. The connection between the clouds and cluster formation is discussed.
Fully sampled 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the whole extent of the LMC have been made with a linear resolution of ~ 30 pc at a detection limit of N(H2) = 2 × 1021 cm−2. In addition, several selected regions have been mapped with higher sensitivity corresponding to a detection limit of 1 × 1021 cm−2. Based on these results, a new estimate of the molecular mass in the LMC is presented.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with NANTEN. We report the results of a comparison between CO clouds and SNRs in the LMC. Among the 35 known SNRs, only 10 are possibly associated with CO clouds. These 10 CO clouds and SNRs deserve follow-up studies for possible interactions. We present overlays of CO clouds on the optical images of some of these SNRs.
We have made 12CO(J=1-0) observations in the LMC with NANTEN, and compared the detected giant molecular clouds (GMCs) with HII regions and stellar clusters. It is found that ~ 80% of the GMCs are associated with HII regions. The results of comparisons of the GMCs with the HII regions and the stellar clusters are presented.
We have made 12CO(J=1−0) observations of the LMC with the NANTEN millimeter-wave telescope and identified about 100 distinct giant molecular clouds (GMCs). A detailed comparison of the GMCs with stellar clusters and a UV image is discussed.
The preparation and properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film transistor arrays for active matrix liquid crystal displays are reported. The effect of amorphous silicon film preparation conditions on the field effect mobility of thin film transistors was investigated. The dry etching rate of silicon nitride film was studied.The thin film transistor arrays have 408 ˜ 640 transistors on the first version and 450 ˜ 640 ˜ 3 transistors on the second version. The liquid crystal panel fabricated using the first version arrays showed good characteristics.
Professor Tani's paper (p. 119) describes recent work on the problem of calculating head reach for mammoth ships of one kind and another. Handling these vessels in confined waters and bringing them alongside the berth also poses particular problems to pilots. This paper illustrates some of these problems, which of course differ to some extent for each port, by describing the pilotage procedures used in one of the new Japanese ports built to accommodate very large vessels.
1. The inland sea and large vessels. The Inland Sea has a coast line of about 4272 kilometres and covers an area of 18,000 square kilometres, equal to that of Lake Ontario. The distance from east to west is about 260 miles and the broadest part from north to south is about 30 miles wide. Navigable channels or waterways for large vessels run in all directions.
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