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We report on the formation of shallow junctions with high activation in both n+/p and p+/n Ge junctions using ion implantation and Flash Lamp Annealing (FLA). The shallowest junction depths (Xj) formed for the n+/p and p+/n junctions were 7.6 nm and 6.1 nm with sheet resistances (Rs) of 860 ohms/sq. and 704 ohms/sq., respectively. By reducing knocked-on oxygen during ion implantation in the n+/p junctions, Rs was decreased by between 5% and 15%. The lowest Rs observed was 235 ohms/sq. with a junction depth of 21.5 nm. Hall measurements clearly revealed that knocked-on oxygen degraded phosphorus activation (carrier concentration). In the p+/n Ge junctions, we show that ion implantation damage induced high boron activation. Using this technique, Rs can be reduced from 475 ohms/sq. to 349 ohms/sq. These results indicate that the potential for forming ultra-shallow n+/p and p+/n junctions in the nanometer range in Ge devices using FLA is very high, leading to realistic monolithically-integrated Ge CMOS devices that can take us beyond Si technology.
Temperature and density asymmetry diagnosis is critical to advance inertial confinement fusion (ICF) science. A multi-monochromatic x-ray imager, MMI, records the spectral signature from an ICF implosion core with time resolution, 2D spatial resolution and spectral resolution. While narrow-band images and 2D space-resolved spectra from the MMI data constrain the temperature and the density spatial structure of the core, the accuracy of the images and the spectra highly depends on the quality of the MMI data and the processing tools. Here, we synthetically investigate the criterion for reliable MMI diagnostics and its effects on the accuracy of the reconstructed images. The pinhole array tilt determines the object spatial sampling efficiency and the minimum reconstruction width,
. When the spectral width associated with
is significantly narrower than the spectral linewidth, the line images reconstructed from the MMI data become reliable. The MMI setup has to be optimized for every application to meet this criterion for reliable ICF diagnostics.
We mapped the NH3 (1,1), (2,2), and (3,3) lines of the molecular cloud associated with the Monkey Head Nebula (MHN) with 1′.6 angular resolution using Kashima 34 m telescope. Its kinetic temperature distribution was contrary to what is expected for a molecular cloud at the edge of an expanding H II region and suggested that the massive star associated with S252A compact HII region formed spontaneously rather than through a sequential process.
A serious sugarcane pest, Dasylepida ishigakiensis, remains in the soil during most of its life cycle except for a short period for mating. Mating disruption by an artificial release of the sex pheromone (R)-2-butanol (R2B), therefore, may be a feasible method to control this pest. We examined the effects of artificial release of R2B and its related compounds, (S)-2-butanol (S2B) and the racemic 2-butanol (rac-2B), on the mating success of this beetle both in the laboratory and in the field. In flight tunnel experiments, almost all males orientated towards a R2B-releasing source and 40% of them landed on the source. When the atmosphere was permeated with R2B, the frequency of males landing on the model was significantly reduced. Both rac-2B and S2B were less effective, but substantial reduction in landing success by males was achieved at higher rac-2B concentrations. R2B released from polyethylene dispensers in sugarcane plots greatly reduced not only the proportion of females mated with males but also the number of males caught by R2B-baited traps, indicating that male mate-searching behaviour was strongly affected by the released R2B. Similar inhibitory effects on male behaviour were also observed when tube- or rope-type dispensers released high rac-2B concentrations in the field. These results indicate that it would be highly possible to control D. ishigakiensis through the disruption of the sexual communication by releasing either synthetic R2B or rac-2B.
We have developed a Wide Field Cryogenic Telescope II (WFCT-II), which contains
a whole telescope-optics in a cryostat to suppress thermal emission from the whole telescope.
The cryostat is of a cylindrical shape of 800 mm length and 300 mm diameter.
The telescope inside is a Ritchey-Chretien system with the primary mirror of 231 mm in diameter
and a focal length of 1500 mm. The InSb 1k × 1k infrared array detector (Aladdin II) has a FoV of 1 square degree
and a resolution of 3'' × 3''/pixel. We can install 5 filters whose wavelengths range from 1 μm to 5 μm.
We present an overview of recent astrometric results with VERA. Since 2004, we have been conducting astrometry of tens of Galactic maser sources with VERA, and recently obtained trigonometric parallaxes for several sources, with distances ranging from 180 pc to 5.3 kpc. In this paper, we briefly summarize the results for Galactic star-forming regions, including S269, Orion-KL, NGC 1333, ρ-oph, NGC 281 and others.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
The expression of EGF/EGFR in 47 laryngeal surgical specimens from 44 patients was examined. PCNA analysis as an index of proliferating cells was also performed in 32 cases of laryngeal cancer, six cases of pre-cancerous lesions and nine cases of normal laryngeal mucosa. EGFR failed to show a significant correlation with tumour behaviour, but EGF expression was statistically significantly higher in malignant (SCC) than in non-malignant tissues (pre-cancerous and normal tissues) (p<0.006), and PCNA also showed a statistically significant difference (p<0.016) between the two. In malignant tissues when EGF/EGFR in ‘double-positive’ and ‘double-negative’ cases was compared, a statistically significant difference in PCNA was found (p<0.029); but this was not seen in non-malignant tissues. Our results support the hypothesis that an autocrine mechanism exists in laryngeal cancer and in this mechanism EGF may play an important role in tumour progression, especially when EGFR is overexpressed.
Metastases to the tongue from distant primaries are very rare. A case of renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the tongue, occurring in a 58-year-old man, is presented and previously reported cases are reviewed.
PIN-structure small-area solar cells using a-Si have been frequently reported on, but only a few reports are available on the study of solar cells using a large-area (10-cm square) substrate, all with a resultant conversion efficiency of above 9.0 %[1,2]. Our study has been concentrated on solar cells using a batch of ten 10-cm square substrates with an average conversion efficiency of 9.5 % or more.
As a result, without an anti-reflection coating on the surface of the glass substrate, the following values have been obtained: average conversion efficiency (EFF)=9.63 % (standard deviation of 0.195 %) -Open-circuit voltage (Voc)=12.668 V (standard deviation of 0.215 V) -Short-circuit current (Isc)=78.467 mA (standard deviation of 1.619 mA) -Fill factor (FF)=0.6672 (standard deviation of 0.009)
The process, equipment and methods for measurements through which these results were obtained are described below.
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