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The southern Great Xing’an Range (SGXR), located in the eastern segment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), is one of the most economically important Cu–Mo–Fe–Sn–Pb–Zn–Ag metallogenic provinces in China. The newly discovered Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn deposit (9.3 Mt; at 1.36% Cu, 2.90% Pb, 3.80% Zn and 38.12 g/t Ag), located in the SE segment of the SGXR, is primarily hosted in fracture zones in volcanic rocks and granodiorite of the Manitu Formation. Four paragenetic stages of metallic mineralization are identified: (I) quartz-pyrite-arsenopyrite; (II) quartz-polymetallic sulphide; (III) quartz-galena-sphalerite-argentite; and (IV) quartz-calcite-minor sulphide. The hydrothermal quartz contains three types of primary fluid inclusion (FIs): vapour-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (LV-type), liquid-rich two-phase liquid-vapour (VL-type) and three-phase liquid-vapour-solid FIs (SL-type). Stages I and II contain all types with homogenization temperatures (Th) of 324–386 °C and 276–334 °C as well as salinities of 0.7–38.0 wt% and 0.9–34.7 wt%, respectively, whereas stage III is composed of VL- and LV-type FIs with Th of 210–269 °C and salinities of 0.5–7.2 wt%. Only VL-type FIs occur in stage IV, with Th of 139–185 °C and salinities of 1.6–4.2 wt%. The δ18OH2O and δD values vary from −15.7 to 2.6‰ and −132.7 to −110.2‰, respectively, indicating predominant meteoric water with an initial magmatic source. The He–Ar isotopic compositions of the pyrite inclusions from the Panjiaduan Cu–Pb–Zn veins suggest that fluids were derived from the crust.
Disaster can strike people in any community at any time anywhere in the world. Disasters occur with high frequency, take on multiple forms, and exert wide influence, typically causing property damage, injuries, and death. As the world’s largest developing country, China incurs great costs when a disaster hits. After the Wenchuan earthquake in 2008, the Chinese government focused its attention on the construction of an emergency response system, the creation of disaster prevention and mitigation systems, and the development of a disaster medicine program. Here, we describe the current status of disaster medicine in China, focusing on the following four aspects: the Emergency Management System, Education & Training, Rescue Practices, and Research. We also discuss the future of disaster medicine in China. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;12:157–165)
A new ultrahigh strength hot rolled Ti–Mo-bearing ferritic steel was developed through chemical composition design and rolling processing optimization. To maximize the potential of nanometer-sized (Ti, Mo)C carbide in terms of strengthening ferrite matrix, the optimal chemical composition of 0.1C–0.2Ti–0.4Mo (wt%) was determined through considering the atomic ratio of elements, the solubility temperature of (Ti, Mo)C in austenite, and the excessive growth critical temperature of austenite grain during reheating. The rolling condition in the region through austenite recrystallization region to austenite nonrecrystallization region was adopted to realize a homogenous and fine ferrite grain structure. Results showed that the simulated coiling at 600 °C was found to provide an attractive combination of ferrite grain refinement hardening (360 MPa) and precipitation hardening (324 MPa). An optimal combination of strength and ductility was achieved after coiling at 600 °C (yield strength: 912 MPa; ultimate tensile strength: 971 MPa; total elongation: 16.0%). In addition, the nanometer-sized (Ti, Mo)C carbide was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and physical–chemical phase analysis, and its role was discussed in details.
Interferon, an important cytokine, is an immunomodulator and possesses antiviral and anti-tumour activity. In vitro, it can be administrated in the treatment of diseases alone or with genetically engineered vaccine to enhance the immune effect of the latter. The recombinant transferring vector pSY681–ChIFN-γ was obtained in this study by inserting the chicken type II interferon (ChIFN-γ) gene into the Fowlpox virus (FPV) transferring vector pSY681. The resulting plasmid was then transfected into chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cell cultures pre-infected with the parental FPV S-FPV-017. Finally, the recombinant Fowlpox virus (rFPV) expressing ChIFN-γ (rFPV–ChIFN-γ) was produced by homologous recombination with the FPV gene in CEF. rFPV-positive plaques were verified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction analysis and indirect immunofluorescence assays. The rFPV–ChIFN-γ supernatants, cultured in CEF for 72 h and inoculated into rat fibroblasts (L929), had an inhibitory effect on the replication of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) with an antiviral titre of 2048 U/ml.
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