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Overweight/obesity (owob) causes low-grad systemic inflammation and thereby an up-regulation of hepcidin and a reduction in fractional iron absorption (FIA) even with low iron stores. Pregnancy increases iron needs because of the expansion of maternal blood volume and fetal needs. It is unclear to what extent owob pregnancy influences FIA, iron supply of the fetus and risk of iron deficiency. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal owob on iron absorption during pregnancy and on the iron transfer to the fetus. Secondary objectives were to investigate the development of hepcidin, plasma ferritin and inflammatory markers over the course of pregnancy dependent on weight status. In this multicenter case-control study we included 44 normal weight (nw) and 36 owob women around pregnancy week (PW) 12. We administered 57Fe or 58Fe labeled FeSO4 to women during the 2nd and 3rd trimester of pregnancy. We measured FIA determining erythrocyte incorporation of iron stable isotopes 14 days after administration. From PW 12 until PW 36 iron-, inflammation and hepcidin were monitored. Iron transfer to the fetus was determined as iron stable isotope concentration in cord blood. Sample analysis is currently ongoing, all results will be available in October. Subject characteristics in PW 12 for the nw (n = 26) and owob (n = 10) were: mean BMI: 21.4 ± 2.2 and 36.7 ± 6.8 kg/m2, mean hemoglobin: 12.4 ± 1.2 and 12.4 ± 0.9 g/dL and median plasma ferritin: 41.3 (29.6–83.6) and 61.6 (24.3–119.0) μg/L. Preliminary results indicate FIA increased by 2.4 fold in the nw and by 1.3 fold in the owob women between the 2nd and the 3rd trimester of pregnancy. Iron stores decreased in both groups over the course of pregnancy. Hepcidin was still significantly higher in the owob women in the 3rd trimester. Inflammation tended to be higher in owob women throughout pregnancy. Iron isotopes were highly detectable in cord blood. The 58Fe:57Fe-ratio determined in cord blood corresponded to the 58Fe:57Fe-ratio determined in the mother in the 3rd trimester. Thus, in owob women, the increase in FIA throughout pregnancy to support iron needs of mother and fetus is blunted compared to nw women. This is consistent with elevated hepcidin in the 3rd trimester and higher inflammation throughout pregnancy. Thus, even though iron demands are strongly increased, owob may prohibit an adequate iron supply to the expecting mother and the fetus due to persistent subclinical inflammation.
Stunting in school-age years may result in a decrease in adult size, and thus reduced work capacity and adverse reproductive outcomes. We have compared the mean intakes of energy, protein and selected growth-limiting nutrients in fifty-eight stunted children and 172 non-stunted controls drawn from 567 children aged 6–13 years attending ten rural schools in NE Thailand. Control children were selected randomly after stratifying children by age in each school. Dietary data were calculated from 24-h recalls using nutrient values from Thai food composition data and chemical analysis. Inter-relationships between stunting and sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical variables were also examined. Biochemical variables investigated were serum albumin, zinc, ferritin, transferrin receptor and retinol, and iodine in casual urine samples. Significantly more males than females were stunted (males, n 38, 65·5 % v. females, n 20, 34·5 %; P = 0·025). Stunted males had lower mean intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus and zinc, and a lower mean (95 % CI) serum zinc (9·19 (8·53, 9·84) v. 9·70 (8·53, 9·29) μmol/l) than non-stunted males; no other biochemical differences were noted. Stunted males also had a lower mean arm muscle area (P = 0·015), after adjusting for age, than non-stunted males. In conclusion, the lower dietary intakes of the stunted males compared to their non-stunted counterparts may be associated with anorexia and hypogeusia induced by zinc deficiency. Hence, zinc deficiency may be a factor limiting linear growth, especially among boys in NE Thailand, but more research is needed to establish whether other factors also play a role.
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