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This paper investigates the clash of (language) ideologies in Estonia in the post-Communist period. In an analysis of changing Western recommendations and Estonian responses during the transition of Estonia from Soviet Socialist Republic to independent state, we trace the development of the discourses on language and citizenship rights. Different conceptions of the nation-state and of how citizenship is acquired, together with different approaches to human rights, led to disagreement between Estonian political elites and the political actors attached to international institutions. In particular, the Soviet demographic legacy posed problems.
We use a context-sensitive approach that takes account of human agency, political intervention, power, and authority in the formation of (national) language ideologies and policies. We find that the complexities of cultural and contextual differences were often ignored and misunderstood by both parties and that in their exchanges the two sides appeared to subscribe to ideal philosophical positions. In the following two decades both sides repositioned themselves and appeared to accommodate to the opposing view. In deconstructing the role of political intervention pressing for social and political inclusion and in documenting the profound feeling of victimhood that remained as a legacy from the Soviet period and the bargain that was struck, we hope to contribute to a deeper understanding of the language ideological debates surrounding the post-Communist nation-(re)building process.
The tension applied to the girth is usually based on an individual's experience rather than by scientific measurement or procedure. The equine thorax is a dynamic structure, and therefore the actual readings of girth tensions at rest and during exercise (actual tension) are likely to vary from the tension to which the girth was intended to be tightened at rest while standing (intended tension). This study was undertaken to determine the variability of girth tensions at rest and during exercise. A total of 19 Hanoverian horses were lunged on a 20 m circle in walk, trot and canter on both reins. In a randomized design, each horse was exposed to intended tensions 6, 10, 14 and 18 kg (saddle and girth at appropriate intended tensions). Girth tension was measured and recorded continuously using an in-line load cell. Intended girth tensions were not significantly different with mean actual girth tensions while standing. Actual girth tensions increased significantly (P < 0.001) between walk, trot and canter at all tensions except rest to trot at tension 6 kg, where the significance level was P < 0.01. Actual girth tension was significantly higher (P < 0.001) on the left rein at tension 14 kg in walk and trot, and at tensions 6, 10 and 14 kg during canter, and there was an overall trend for higher actual girth tensions on the left rein for the other tensions. As the thorax is a dynamic structure, girth tension variation could be due to multiple factors such as respiration, breath holding, muscular contraction, back flexion and extension, speed, gait and vertical acceleration of the saddle. Girth tension is a relatively new area of research, and as there are many opportunities for further research, a better understanding of the impact the girth has on the horse could help to improve performance and welfare.
An evaluation was conducted of the approaches, costs, and quality-of-life outcomes associated with communication aid assessment programs for the speech-impaired provided by specialist Communication Aids Centres (CACs) in the United Kingdom. The average costs of CAC assessment programs was £410 per client, which is not excessive. There was evidence of moderate quality-of-life benefits from clients' use of the recommended aids.
French was a prestige lingua franca for centuries. Although it is now declining in this role, the French government and French elites have mounted a campaign to promote and defend French in international settings. This chapter examines three basic misconceptions in the arguments advanced in this campaign: (1) The intrinsic qualities of a language are factors in the promotion of a language as a lingua franca; (2) language policy making at national level can affect language practices in international contexts; and (3) language diversity is served by the promotion of another prestige lingua franca. It concludes with a review of some of the pragmatic decisions taken by French nationals to confront the new linguistic situation.