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The introduction of autonomous vehicles (autonomous vehicles) will reshape the many social interactions that are part of traffic today. In order for autonomous vehicles to become successfully integrated, the social interactions surrounding them need to be purposefully designed. To ensure success and save development efforts, design methods that explore social aspects in early design phases are needed to provide conceptual directions before committing to concrete solutions. This paper contributes an exploration of methods for addressing the social aspects of autonomous vehicles in three key areas: the vehicle as a social entity in traffic, co-experience within the vehicle and the user–vehicle relationship. The methods explored include Wizard of Oz, small-scale scenarios, design metaphors, enactment and peer-to-peer interviews. These were applied in a workshop setting with 18 participants from academia and industry. The methods provided interesting design seeds, however with differing effectiveness. The most promising methods enabled flexible idea exploration, but in a contextualized and concrete manner through tangible objects and enactment to stage future use situations. Further, combinations of methods that enable a shift between social perspectives were preferred. Wizard of Oz and small-scale scenarios were found fruitful as collaboration basis for multidisciplinary teams, by establishing a united understanding of the problem at hand.
Elevated birth weight is linked to glucose intolerance and obesity health-related complications later in life. No studies have examined if infant birth weight is associated with gene expression markers of obesity and inflammation in a tissue that comes directly from the infant following birth. We evaluated the association between birth weight and gene expression on fetal programming of obesity. Foreskin samples were collected following circumcision, and gene expression analyzed comparing the 15% greatest birth weight infants (n=7) v. the remainder of the cohort (n=40). Multivariate linear regression models were fit to relate expression levels on differentially expressed genes to birth weight group with adjustment for variables selected from a list of maternal and infant characteristics. Glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS2), leptin receptor (LEPR), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and transcription factor 7-like 2 (TCF7L2) were significantly upregulated and histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1) and thioredoxin (TXN) downregulated in the larger birth weight neonates v. controls. Multivariate modeling revealed that the estimated adjusted birth weight group difference exceeded one standard deviation of the expression level for eight of the 10 genes. Between 25 and 50% of variation in expression level was explained by multivariate modeling for eight of the 10 genes. Gene expression related to glycemic control, appetite/energy balance, obesity and inflammation were altered in tissue from babies with elevated birth weight, and these genes may provide important information regarding fetal programming in macrosomic babies.
There is increasing evidence that Mars may have once been a habitable environment. Gypsum is targeted in the search for Martian biosignatures because it can host extensive cryptoendolithic communities in extreme terrestrial environments and is widespread on Mars. In this study the viability of using different spectroscopy-based techniques to identify the presence of gypsum endolithic communities was investigated by analysing various cryptoendoliths collected from the Lake St. Martin impact crater (LSM), a Mars analogue site found in Manitoba, Canada. Concurrently, the cryptoendolithic microbial community structure present was also analysed to aid in assigning spectroscopic features to microbial community members. Two main morphologies of endolithic communities were collected from gypsum deposits at LSM: true cryptoendolithic communities and annular deposits on partially buried boulders and cobbles <1 cm below the soil surface. Endolithic communities were found to be visibly present only in gypsum with a high degree of translucency and could occur as deep as 3 cm below the exterior surface. The bacterial community was dominated by a phylum (Chloroflexi) that has not been previously observed in gypsum endoliths. The exterior surfaces of gypsum boulders and cobbles are devoid of spectroscopic features attributable to organic molecules and detectable by reflectance, Raman, or ultraviolet-induced fluorescence spectroscopies. However, exposed interior surfaces show unique endolithic signatures detectable by each spectroscopic technique. This indicates that cryptoendolithic communities can be detected via spectroscopy-based techniques, provided they are either partially or fully exposed and enough photon–target interactions occur to enable detection.
Spring and evaporite deposits are considered two of the most promising environments for past habitability on Mars and preservation of biosignatures. Manitoba, Canada hosts the East German Creek (EGC) hypersaline spring complex, and the post impact evaporite gypsum beds of the Lake St. Martin (LSM) impact. The EGC complex has microbial mats, sediments, algae and biofabrics, while endolithic communities are ubiquitous in the LSM gypsum beds. These communities are spectrally detectable based largely on the presence of a chlorophyll absorption band at 670 nm; however, the robustness of this feature under Martian surface conditions was unclear. Biological and biology-bearing samples from EGC and LSM were exposed to conditions similar to the surface of present day Mars (high UV flux, 100 mbar, anoxic, CO2 rich) for up to 44 days, and preservation of the 670 nm chlorophyll feature and chlorophyll red-edge was observed. A decrease in band depth of the 670 nm band ranging from ∼16 to 80% resulted, with correlations seen in the degree of preservation and the spatial proximity of samples to the spring mound and mineral shielding effects. The spectra were deconvolved to Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam and Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Mastcam science filter bandpasses to investigate the detectability of the 670 nm feature and to compare with common mineral features. The red-edge and 670 nm feature associated with chlorophyll can be distinguished from the spectra of minerals with features below ∼1000 nm, such as hematite and jarosite. However, distinguishing goethite from samples with the chlorophyll feature is more problematic, and quantitative interpretation using band depth data makes little distinction between iron oxyhydroxides and the 670 nm chlorophyll feature. The chlorophyll spectral feature is observable in both Pancam and Mastcam, and we propose that of the proposed EXOMARS Pancam filters, the PHYLL filter is best suited for its detection.
In the last decade, a sizable number of economists have begun to study the behavior and political effects of mass media. In this survey, we propose a way to organize this body of research, we attempt to summarize the key insights that have been learned so far, and we suggest potentially important open questions.
We structure the discussion in sections covering background, transparency, capture, informative coverage, and ideological bias. Section 2.0 begins with an overview of how economics and other disciplines approach this field and defines the scope of this survey. Section 3.0, discusses the benefits and costs of transparency in politics: Under which situations do voters benefit from receiving more information?
Section 4.0 addresses under which conditions the government will prevent the media from performing its information-provision task. Media capture is a present or latent risk in most developing and many developed countries. We present a theory of endogenous capture and survey the growing empirical literature on the extent and determinants of capture. As demonstrated herein, different sources of evidence provide support for the idea that ownership plurality is the most effective defense against capture.
Section 5.0 discusses a crucial theme in media studies – namely, how informative media coverage affects political accountability and government policy. A model of policy choice with endogenous media coverage supplies an array of testable implications, used to organize the existing empirical work. The key questions are: What drives media coverage of politics? How does this coverage influence government policy, the actions and selection of politicians, and the information levels and voting behavior of the public?