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Herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed in several agronomic crops and is a relatively new challenge to dry bean production in western Nebraska. Objectives were to evaluate preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) herbicides for control of acetolactate synthase–resistant Palmer amaranth and their effect on Palmer amaranth density and biomass as well as dry bean injury and yield in western Nebraska. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2019 near Scottsbluff, NE. The experiments were arranged as a two-factor strip-plot design. The strip-plot factor consisted of no-PRE or pendimethalin (1,070 g ai ha–1) + dimethenamid-P (790 g ai h–1) applied PRE. The main-plot factor was POST herbicides, which consisted of various mixtures of imazamox, bentazon, or fomesafen applied in a single or sequential application at labeled rates, and reduced rates of imazamox (9 g ai ha–1) + bentazon (314 g ai ha–1) + fomesafen (70 g ai ha–1) applied in single or sequential (two or three) applications. PRE herbicides reduced Palmer amaranth density and biomass during both years and increased dry bean yield in 2017. POST treatments containing fomesafen improved Palmer amaranth control compared with treatments containing imazamox and bentazon only. The sequential-application reduced-rate POST system did not improve Palmer amaranth control compared to one POST application containing fomesafen at a labeled rate in either year. Using pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P PRE followed by POST treatments containing imazamox + bentazon + fomesafen at a labeled rate provided 86% and 99% Palmer amaranth control in 2017 and 2019, respectively.
The critical timing of weed removal (CTWR) is the point in crop development when weed control must be initiated to prevent crop yield loss due to weed competition. A field study was conducted in 2018 and 2020 near Scottsbluff, NE, to determine how the use of preemergence herbicides affects the CTWR in dry bean. The experiment was arranged as a split plot, with herbicide treatment and weed removal timing as main and sub-plot factors, respectively. Herbicide treatments consisted of no-preemergence application, or pendimethalin (1,070 g ai ha–1) + dimethenamid-P (790 g ai ha–1) applied preemergence. Sub-plot treatments included season-long weed-free, weed removal at: V1, V3, V6, R2, and R5 dry bean growth stages, and a season-long weedy control. A four-parameter logistic model was used to estimate the impact of time of weed removal, for all response variables including dry bean yield, dry bean plants m–1 row, number of pods per plant, number of seeds per pod, and seed weight. The CTWR based on 5% yield reduction was estimated to range from the V1 growth stage [(16 d after emergence (DAE)] to the R1 growth stage (39 DAE) in the no-preemergence herbicide treatment. In the preemergence-applied treatment, the CTWR began at the R2 growth stage (47 DAE). Number of dry bean plants m–1 row was reduced in the no-preemergence treatment when weed removal was delayed beyond the R2 growth stage in the 2020 field season. The use of preemergence herbicides prevented a reduction in the number of pods per plant in 2020, and the number of seeds per pod in 2018 and 2020. In 2018, the number of pods per plant was reduced by 73% when no preemergence herbicide was applied, compared to 26% in the preemergence-applied treatment. The use of preemergence-applied soil-active herbicides in dry bean delayed the CTWR and preserved yield potential.
Late-emerging summer annual weeds are difficult to control in dry bean production fields. Dry bean is a poor competitor with weeds, due to its slow rate of growth and delayed canopy formation. Palmer amaranth is particularly difficult to control due to season-long emergence and resistance to acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicides. Dry bean growers rely on PPI and preemergence residual herbicides for the foundation of their weed control programs; however, postemergence herbicides are often needed for season-long weed control. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effect of planting date and herbicide program on late-season weed control in dry bean in western Nebraska. Field experiments were conducted in 2017 and 2018 near Scottsbluff, NE. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design, with planting date and herbicide program as main-plot and subplot factors, respectively. Delayed planting was represented by a delay of 15 d after standard planting time. The treatments EPTC + ethalfluralin, EPTC + ethalfluralin followed by (fb) imazamox + bentazon, and pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P fb imazamox + bentazon, resulted in the lowest Palmer amaranth density at 3 wk after treatment and the highest dry bean yield. The imazamox + bentazon treatment provided poor Palmer amaranth control and did not consistently result in Palmer amaranth density and biomass reduction compared with the nontreated control. In 2018, the delayed planting treatment had reduced Palmer amaranth biomass with the pendimethalin + dimethenamid-P treatment, as compared with standard planting. Delaying planting did not reduce dry bean yield and had limited benefit in improving weed control in dry bean.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) Palmer amaranth is a troublesome weed that can emerge throughout the soybean growing season in Nebraska and several other regions of the United States. Late-emerging Palmer amaranth plants can produce seeds, thus replenishing the soil seedbank. The objectives of this study were to evaluate single or sequential applications of labeled POST herbicides such as acifluorfen, dicamba, a fomesafen and fluthiacet-methyl premix, glyphosate, and lactofen on GR Palmer amaranth control, density, biomass, seed production, and seed viability, as well as grain yield of dicamba- and glyphosate-resistant (DGR) soybean. Field experiments were conducted in a grower’s field infested with GR Palmer amaranth near Carleton, NE, in 2018 and 2019, with no PRE herbicide applied. Acifluorfen, dicamba, a premix of fomesafen and fluthiacet-methyl, glyphosate, or lactofen were applied POST in single or sequential applications between the V4 and R6 soybean growth stages, with timings based on product labels. Dicamba applied at V4 or in sequential applications at V4 followed by R1 or R3 controlled GR Palmer amaranth 91% to 100% at soybean harvest, reduced Palmer amaranth density to as low as 2 or fewer plants m−2, reduced seed production to 557 to 2,911 seeds per female plant, and resulted in the highest soybean yield during both years of the study. Sequential applications of acifluorfen, fomesafen and fluthiacet premix, or lactofen were not as effective as dicamba for GR Palmer amaranth control; however, they reduced seed production similar to dicamba. On the basis of the results of this study, we conclude that dicamba was effective for controlling GR Palmer amaranth and reduced density, biomass, and seed production without DGR soybean injury. Herbicides evaluated in this study had no effect on Palmer amaranth seed viability.
A prepackaged mixture of desmedipham + phenmedipham was previously labeled for control of Amaranthus spp. in sugarbeet. Currently, there are no effective POST herbicide options to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in sugarbeet. Sugarbeet growers are interested in using desmedipham + phenmedipham to control escaped Palmer amaranth. In 2019, a greenhouse experiment was initiated near Scottsbluff, NE, to determine the selectivity of desmedipham and phenmedipham between Palmer amaranth and sugarbeet. Three populations of Palmer amaranth and four sugarbeet hybrids were evaluated. Herbicide treatments consisted of desmedipham and phenmedipham applied singly or as mixtures at an equivalent rate. Herbicides were applied when Palmer amaranth and sugarbeet were at the cotyledon stage, or two true-leaf sugarbeet stage and when Palmer amaranth was 7 cm tall. The selectivity indices for desmedipham, phenmedipham, and desmedipham + phenmedipham were 1.61, 2.47, and 3.05, respectively, at the cotyledon stage. At the two true-leaf application stage, the highest rates of desmedipham and phenmedipham were associated with low mortality rates in sugarbeet, resulting in a failed response of death. The highest rates of desmedipham + phenmedipham caused a death response of sugarbeet; the selectivity index was 2.15. Desmedipham treatments resulted in lower LD50 estimates for Palmer amaranth compared to phenmedipham, indicating that desmedipham can provide greater levels of control for Palmer amaranth. However, desmedipham also caused greater injury in sugarbeet, producing lower LD50 estimates compared to phenmedipham. Desmedipham + phenmedipham provided 90% or greater control of cotyledon-size Palmer amaranth at a labeled rate but also caused high levels of sugarbeet injury. Neither desmedipham, phenmedipham, nor desmedipham + phenmedipham was able to control 7-cm tall Palmer amaranth at previously labeled rates. Results indicate that desmedipham + phenmedipham can only control Palmer amaranth if applied at the cotyledon stage and a high level of sugarbeet injury is acceptable.
Residual herbicides applied PRE provide early season weed control, potentially avoid the need for multiple POST herbicides, and can provide additional control of herbicide-resistant weeds. Thus, field studies were conducted in 2017 and 2018 at Concord, NE, to evaluate the influence of PRE herbicides on critical time for postemergence weed removal (CTWR) in corn. The studies were arranged in a split-plot design that consisted of three herbicide regimes as main plot treatments and seven weed removal timings as subplot treatments in four replications. The herbicide regimes included no PRE herbicide, atrazine, and a premix of saflufenacil/dimethenamid-P mixed with pyroxasulfone. The weed removal timings were at V3, V6, V9, V12, and V15 corn growth stages and then plots were kept weed-free until harvest. A weed-free and nontreated control were included for comparison. The relationship between corn growth or yield, and weed removal timings in growing degree days (GDD) was described by a four-parameter log-logistic model. This model was used to estimate the critical time for weed removal based on 5% crop yield loss threshold. A delay in weed removal until the V2 to V3 corn growth stage (91 to 126 GDD) reduced corn biomass by 5% without PRE herbicide application. The CTWR started at V3 without PRE herbicide in both years. Atrazine delayed the CTWR up to V5 in both years, whereas saflufenacil/dimethenamid-P plus pyroxasulfone further delayed the CTWR up to the V10 and V8 corn growth stages in 2017 and 2018, respectively. Herbicide applied PRE particularly with multiple sites of action can delay the CTWR in corn up to a maximum growth stage of V10, and delay or reduce the need for POST weed management.
Corn-on-corn production systems, common in highly productive irrigated fields in South Central Nebraska, can create issues with volunteer corn management in corn fields. EnlistTM corn is a new multiple herbicide–resistance trait providing resistance to 2,4-D, glyphosate, and the aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides (FOPs), commonly integrated in glufosinate-resistant germplasm. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate ACCase-inhibiting herbicides for glyphosate/glufosinate-resistant volunteer corn control in Enlist corn and (2) evaluate the effect of ACCase-inhibiting herbicide application timing (early POST vs. late POST) on volunteer corn control, Enlist corn injury, and yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 at South Central Agricultural Laboratory near Clay Center, NE. Glyphosate/glufosinate-resistant corn harvested the year prior was cross-planted at 49,000 seeds ha–1 to mimic volunteer corn in this study. After 7 to 10 d had passed, Enlist corn was planted at 91,000 seeds ha–1. Application timing of FOPs (fluazifop, quizalofop, and fluazifop/fenoxaprop) had no effect on Enlist corn injury or yield, and provided 97% to 99% control of glyphosate/glufosinate-resistant volunteer corn at 28 d after treatment (DAT). Cyclohexanediones (clethodim and sethoxydim; DIMs) and phenylpyrazolin (pinoxaden; DEN) provided 84% to 98% and 65% to 71% control of volunteer corn at 28 DAT, respectively; however, the treatment resulted in 62% to 96% Enlist corn injury and 69% to 98% yield reduction. Orthogonal contrasts comparing early-POST (30-cm-tall volunteer corn) and late-POST (50-cm-tall volunteer corn) applications of FOPs were not significant for volunteer corn control, Enlist corn injury, and yield. Fluazifop, quizalofop, and fluazifop/fenoxaprop resulted in 94% to 99% control of glyphosate/glufosinate-resistant volunteer corn with no associated Enlist corn injury or yield loss; however, quizalofop is the only labeled product as of 2020 for control of volunteer corn in Enlist corn.
Velvetleaf is an economically important weed in popcorn production fields in Nebraska. Many PRE herbicides in popcorn have limited residual activity or provide partial velvetleaf control. There are a limited number of herbicides applied POST in popcorn compared with field corn, necessitating the evaluation of POST herbicides for control of velvetleaf. The objectives of this study were to (1) evaluate the efficacy and crop safety of labeled POST herbicides for controlling velvetleaf that survived S-metolachlor/atrazine applied PRE and (2) determine the effect of velvetleaf height on POST herbicide efficacy, popcorn injury, and yield. Field experiments were conducted in 2018 and 2019 near Clay Center, Nebraska. The experiments were arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. The main plot treatments were velvetleaf height (≤15 cm and ≤30 cm) and subplot treatments included a no-POST herbicide control, and 11 POST herbicide programs. Fluthiacet-methyl, fluthiacet-methyl/mesotrione, carfentrazone-ethyl, dicamba, and dicamba/diflufenzopyr provided greater than 96% velvetleaf control 28 d after treatment (DAT), reduced velvetleaf density to fewer than 7 plants m−2, achieved 99% to 100% biomass reduction, and had no effect on popcorn yield. Herbicide programs tested in this study provided greater than 98% control of velvetleaf 28 DAT in 2019. Most POST herbicide programs in this study provided greater than 90% control of up to 15 cm and up to 30 cm velvetleaf and no differences between velvetleaf heights in density, biomass reduction, or popcorn yield were observed, except with topramezone and nicosulfuron/mesotrione 28 DAT in 2018. On the basis of contrast analysis, herbicide programs with fluthiacet-methyl or dicamba provided better control than herbicide programs without them at 28 DAT in 2018. It is concluded that POST herbicides are available for control of velvetleaf up to 30-cm tall in popcorn production fields.
Understanding the critical time of weed removal (CTWR) is necessary for designing effective weed management programs in popcorn production that do not result in yield reduction. The objective of this study was to determine the CTWR in popcorn with and without a premix of atrazine and S-metolachlor applied PRE. Field experiments were conducted at the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, South Central Agricultural Laboratory near Clay Center, NE in 2017 and 2018. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with PRE herbicide as the main plot and weed removal timing as the subplot. Main plots included no herbicide or atrazine/S-metolachlor applied PRE. Subplot treatments included a weed-free control, a non-treated control, and weed removal timing at V3, V6, V9, V15, and R1 popcorn growth stages and then kept weed free throughout the season. A four-parameter log-logistic function was fitted to percentage popcorn yield loss and growing degree days separately to each main plot. The number of growing degree days, when 5% yield loss was achieved, was extracted from the model and compared between main plots. The CTWR was from the V4 to V5 popcorn growth stage in absence of PRE herbicide. With atrazine/S-metolachlor applied PRE, the CTWR was delayed until V10 to V15. It is concluded that, to avoid yield loss, weeds must be controlled before the V4 popcorn growth stage when no PRE herbicide is applied, and PRE herbicide, such as atrazine/S-metolachlor in this study, can delay the CTWR until the V10 growth stage.
Widespread and repeated use of glyphosate resulted in an increase in glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. This led to an urgent need for diversification of weed control programs and use of PRE herbicides with alternative sites of action. Field experiments were conducted over a 4-yr period (2015 to 2018) across three locations in Nebraska to evaluate the effects of PRE-applied herbicides on critical time for weed removal (CTWR) in GR soybean. The studies were laid out in a split-plot arrangement with herbicide regime as the main plot and weed removal timing as the subplot. The herbicide regimes used were either no PRE or premix of either sulfentrazone plus imazethapyr (350 + 70 g ai ha−1) or saflufenacil plus imazethapyr plus pyroxasulfone (26 + 70 + 120 g ai ha−1). The weed removal timings were at V1, V3, V6, R2, and R5 soybean stages, with weed-free and weedy season-long checks. Weeds were removed by application of glyphosate (1,400 g ae ha−1) or by hoeing. The results across all years and locations suggested that the use of PRE herbicides delayed CTWR in soybean. In particular, the CTWR without PRE herbicides was determined to be around the V1 to V2 (14 to 21 d after emergence [DAE]) growth stage, depending on the location and weed pressure. The use of PRE-applied herbicides delayed CTWR from about the V4 (28 DAE) stage up to the R5 (66 DAE) stage. These results suggest that the use of PRE herbicides in GR soybean could delay the need for POST application of glyphosate by 2 to 5 wk, thereby reducing the need for multiple applications of glyphosate during the growing season. Additionally, the use of PRE herbicides could provide additional modes of action needed to manage GR weeds in GR soybean.
Understanding how plants alter their growth in response to interplant competition is an overlooked but complex problem. Previous studies have characterized the effect of light and water stress on soybean or common ragweed growth in monoculture, but no study has characterized soybean and common ragweed growth in mixture. A field study was conducted in 2015 and 2016 at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln to characterize the growth response of soybean and common ragweed with different irrigation levels and intraspecific and interspecific interference. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with irrigation level (0, 50%, 100% replacement of simulated evapotranspiration) as the main plot and common ragweed density (0, 2, 6, 12 plants m−1 row) as the subplot. Crop- and weed-free controls and three mixture treatments were included as subplots. Periodic destructive samples of leaf area and biomass of different organ groups were collected, and leaf area index (LAI), aboveground biomass partitioning, specific leaf area (SLA), and leaf area ratio (LAR) were calculated. Additionally, soybean and common ragweed yield were harvested, and 100-seed weight and seed production were determined. Soybean did not alter biomass partitioning, SLA, or LAR in mixture with common ragweed. Soybean LAI, biomass, and seed size were affected by increasing common ragweed density. Conversely, common ragweed partitioned less new biomass to leaves and increased SLA in response to increased interference. Common ragweed LAI, biomass, and seed number were reduced by the presence of soybean and increasing common ragweed density; however, seed weight was not affected. Results show that adjustment in biomass partitioning, SLA, and LAR is not the method that soybean uses to remain plastic under competition for light. Common ragweed demonstrated plasticity in both biomass partitioning and SLA, indicating an ability to maintain productivity under intra- and inter-specific competition for light or soil resources.
Kochia [Bassia scoparia (L.) A. J. Scott] is a problematic weed species across the Great Plains, as it is spreading fast and has developed herbicide-resistant biotypes. It is imperative to understand key life-history stages that promote population expansion of B. scoparia and control strategies that would provide effective control of these key stages, thereby reducing population growth. Diversifying weed control strategies has been widely recommended for the management of herbicide-resistant weeds. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to develop a simulation model to assess the population dynamics of B. scoparia and to evaluate the effectiveness of diverse weed control strategies on long-term growth rates of B. scoparia populations. The model assumed the existence of a glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotype in the B. scoparia population, but at a very low proportion in a crop rotation that included glyphosate-tolerant corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. The parameter estimates used in the model were obtained from various ecological and management studies on B. scoparia. Model simulations indicated that seedling recruitment and survival to seed production were more important than seedbank persistence for B. scoparia population growth rate. Results showed that a diversified management program, including glyphosate, could provide excellent control of B. scoparia populations and potentially eliminate already evolved GR B. scoparia biotypes within a given location. The most successful scenario was a diverse control strategy that included one or two preplant tillage operations followed by preplant or PRE application of herbicides with residual activities and POST application of glyphosate; this strategy reduced seedling recruitment, survival, and seed production during the growing season, with tremendous negative impacts on long-term population growth and resistance risk in B. scoparia.
This study evaluated the effectiveness of 14 herbicide treatments for purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria L.) control over a period of 10 yr. The study commenced in 2000/2001 at four wetland locations in Nebraska. The evaluated herbicides included: glyphosate at 2.2 and 3.4 kg ha−1; 2,4-D dimethylamine at 1.4 and 2.8 kg ae ha−1; triclopyr at 1.3 and 2.1 kg ae ha−1; imazapyr at 1.1 and 1.7 kg ae ha−1; metsulfuron at 0.042 and 0.084 ai kg ha−1; fosamine at 13.5 and 22.4 kg ai ha−1; triclopyr at 1.3 kg ae ha−1 plus 2,4-D amine at 1.4 ae kg ha−1; and metsulfuron at 0.042 kg ai ha−1 plus 2,4-D amine at 1.4 kg ae ha−1. Some treatments provided excellent control (90%) that lasted only one season, while others suppressed L. salicaria growth for multiple seasons, depending on the location and the age of L. salicaria stand. Application of higher rates of glyphosate, imazapyr, and metsulfuron consistently provided excellent control (≥90%) of L. salicaria that lasted 360 d after treatment at most locations. Application of fosamine and the lower rate of 2,4-D amine provided the least L. salicaria control at most locations. The older the L. salicaria stand, the more multiple applications of herbicides were needed to completely control L. salicaria. Generally, there were higher percentages of grasses in the 2,4-D-, triclopyr-, and metsulfuron-treated plots compared with higher percentages of broadleaf species in the glyphosate- and imazapyr-treated plots at each location.
Spring tillage is a component of an integrated weed management strategy for control of early emerging glyphosate-resistant weeds such as common ragweed; however, the effect of tillage on common ragweed emergence pattern is unknown. The objectives of this study were to evaluate whether spring tillage during emergence would influence the emergence pattern or stimulate additional emergence of common ragweed and to characterize common ragweed emergence in southeast Nebraska. A field experiment was conducted for three years (2014 to 2016) in Gage County, Nebraska in a field naturally infested with glyphosate-resistant common ragweed. Treatments consisted of a no-tillage control and three spring tillage timings. The Soil Temperature and Moisture Model (STM2) software was used to estimate soil temperature and moisture at a 2-cm depth. The Weibull function was fit to total common ragweed emergence (%) with day of year (DOY), thermal time, and hydrothermal time as independent variables. Tillage treatments and year had no effect on total common ragweed emergence (P=0.88 and 0.35, respectively) and time to 10, 25, 50, 75, and 90% emergence (P=0.31). However, emergence pattern was affected by year (P=<0.001) with 50% total emergence reached on May 5 in 2014, April 20 in 2015, and April 2 in 2016 and 90% total emergence reached on May 12, 2014, May 8, 2015, and April 30, 2016. According to the corrected information-theoretic model comparison criterion (AICc), the Weibull function with thermal time and base temperature of 3 C best explained the emergence pattern over three years. This study concludes that spring tillage does not stimulate additional emergence; therefore, after the majority of the common ragweed has emerged and before the crop has been planted, tillage could be used as an effective component of an integrated glyphosate-resistant common ragweed management program in Nebraska.
The adoption of conservation tillage systems has been challenged by concerns potential weed species shifts. A 9-yr study from 1988 to 1996 was conducted Delhi, Ontario, on a loamy sand soil to evaluate the effect of tillage systems (conventional [CT] and no-till [NT]), cover crop Secale cereale, and nitrogen (N) rate (0, 50, 100, 125, 150, and 200 kg N ha−1) on monocrop Zea mays L. (corn) yield and changes in the composition of the weed flora. CT consisted of spring moldboard plowing followed by cultivation with a tooth cultivator. Weed counts were taken in the last 3 yr of the study (1994, 1995, and 1996) prior to postemergence herbicide application and then again 2 to 3 wk after herbicide treatment. Composition or the weed flora was analyzed by canonical discriminant analysis (CDA). The relationship between weed density and tillage system was not consistent. Weed species composition differed between CT and NT systems. Chenopodium album and Amaranthus retroflexus were associated with CT and Digitaria sanguinalis with NT. N rate and cover crop did not affect weed density or species composition. Proper management of weeds with herbicides appeared to minimize any long-term effect on the weed flora resulting from varying N rates. Zea mays yields did not differ between CT and NT systems but were greater in both systems with a cover crop at the higher N rates. Disturbance caused by tillage was more important than N rate and cover crop as a mechanism influencing composition of the weed flora.
Field studies were conducted in 1996 and 1997 at three locations throughout southern Ontario with the objective of developing dose-response curves of RPA 201772 for weed control and crop tolerance in corn. The biologically effective doses required to control redroot pigweed, velvetleaf, and wild mustard were 100, 90, and 80 g/ha, respectively. Yellow foxtail was controlled with 100 to 120 g/ha, while rates for common lambsquarters varied from 60 to 130 g/ha, depending on the year and location. Wild buckwheat control was poor (> 30%) at all of the doses tested. RPA 201772 did not reduce corn grain yield; however, temporary crop injury was evident on coarse sandy soils.
Redroot pigweed is a troublesome weed in the sorghum-growing regions of North America. In 1994 and 1995, field studies were conducted at two locations near Manhattan, KS, to determine the influence of redroot pigweed density and environmental conditions on physiological determinants of redroot pigweed growth: duration of plant growth, light interception, radiation-use efficiency, and dry matter partitioning. In addition, specific leaf area was determined. Redroot pigweed was seeded at monoculture densities of 2, 4, and 12 plants m−1 of row each year at each location. Duration of redroot pigweed growth was not influenced by plant density. Light interception was defined as a simple exponential function of leaf area index. Specific leaf area did not change over the season and averaged 135 cm2 g−1. Partitioning of redroot pigweed dry matter was not influenced by plant density or environmental conditions but did not change within vegetative and reproductive stages. Radiation-use efficiency was not influenced by redroot pigweed density; the most reliable estimate was 1.74 g dry matter MJ−1 of intercepted photosynthetically active radiation. Physiological determinants described were not affected by redroot pigweed density or environmental conditions and therefore provide a starting point for the development of a redroot pigweed growth module. The module could be coupled with available crop growth models (e.g., the sorghum growth model SORKAM) to simulate redroot pigweed–sorghum competition.
Redroot pigweed is a common weed in sorghum fields throughout the southcentral United States including Kansas. In 1994 and 1995, field studies were conducted at two sites near Manhattan, KS, to determine the influence of redroot pigweed densities and times of emergence on sorghum yield and yield components. Redroot pigweed was sown at densities of 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 12 plants meter−1 of row within a 25-cm band over the sorghum row at planting and at the three- to four-leaf stage of sorghum. A rectangular hyperbola was used to describe the relationship between crop yield loss and weed density. Because of the instability of both coefficients I (percentage yield loss at low weed density) and A (percentage yield loss at high weed density), our results do not support the use of a model based exclusively on weed number to estimate sorghum yield loss across all locations within a region. A quadratic polynomial equation that accounts for the time of weed emergence relative to the crop growth stage is suggested as an alternative method to estimate sorghum yield loss. At the densities studied, the time of pigweed emergence relative to the sorghum leaf stage was critical for the outcome of sorghum-pigweed competition. Significant sorghum yield losses occurred only when pigweed emerged before the 5.5-leaf stage of sorghum. An examination of yield components suggested that the yield loss was a result of a reduction in number of seeds per head.
Field experiments were conducted in 1996 and 1997 at five locations in southwestern Ontario to develop dose-response curves for SAN 1269H (SAN 835H plus dicamba) for weed control and crop tolerance in corn. SAN 1269H controlled wild buckwheat (Polygonum convolvulus L.), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), pigweeds (Amaranthus retroflexus L. and A. powellii S. Wats.), barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv.], and yellow foxtail [Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv.]. Biologically effective doses of SAN 1269H (BAS 662H) were 440, 430, 180, and 40 g/ha for yellow foxtail, barnyard grass, wild buckwheat, and common ragweed, respectively. The biologically effective dose (that which provides 90% reduction in weed dry matter) for common lambsquarters was 560 g/ha when SAN 1269H was applied preemergence (PRE) and 110 g/ha when applied postemergence (POST). When applied PRE at a rate of 420 g/ha, pigweed was controlled, whereas only 85 g/ha was required when applied POST. Grain yield increased with dose of SAN 1269H and did not differ with time of application. Temporary crop injury was observed when SAN 1269H was applied at the four- to six-leaf growth stage. Optimum corn yields were achieved with doses of 100 to 250 g/ha.