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This study aimed to explore the relationships between situational and psychological factors and Hong Kong citizens’ plastic waste management (PWM) intentions based on an extended theory of planned behaviour model with situational factors. A total of 996 Hong Kong permanent residents were surveyed, and data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results revealed that situational factors had a direct and positive effect on PWM intention, but also affected PWM intention indirectly through their significant effects on attitude and perceived behavioural control regarding PWM. The implications for environmental education and policy are discussed.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The purpose of this study is to identify and quantitatively describe environmental barriers to community engagement and activity participation for adults with stroke and low income. Repeated electronic surveys collected in real time will reduce recall bias and improve characterization of barriers. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: 20-30 community-dwelling adults with stroke and low income will be recruited for this pilot study. Inclusion criteria: > 1 month post stroke and evidence that they have the vision, literacy, and cognitive capacities to answer survey questions on a smart device. Exclusion criteria: severe aphasia, severe mental illness or substance abuse within 3 months, and ataxia. Participants will complete standardized assessments of daily activities, engagement in and perceptions about community activities, social support, and perceived environmental barriers. Participants then complete four surveys per day for 14 days using an app on an iPod Touch, reporting activities attempted and barriers encountered. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: This is the first study of this kind and is a work in progress. We anticipate that the environmental barriers reported will include physical (e.g. built structures, climate, and natural terrain), social (e.g. support or lack thereof; stigma), political (e.g. access to transportation; healthcare services), and technological barriers (e.g. difficulties with personal equipment and/or technologies such as elevators, ticket kiosks, etc.). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: An increased understanding of the barriers facing community-dwelling adults with stroke and low income will facilitate the development of culturally-appropriate and more accessible self-management programs to help this population re-engage in their communities and return to pre-stroke activities.
Maintaining physical, psychological and social wellbeing is integral to older adults being able to age well in their community. Therefore, an environment that facilitates and supports ageing well is imperative. The aim of this study was to explore the views of older people about their preparation for ageing well in a rural community. Forty-nine community-dwelling older people aged between 65 and 93 years participated in a semi-structured and digitally recorded interview. The resulting qualitative data were analysed using a thematic approach. Three main themes were identified: (a) ‘sensible planning: the right place and the right people’; (b) ‘remaining independent: “it's up to me”’; and (c) ‘facing challenges: “accepting my lot”’. Findings from this study identify that across all age groups, these older people were actively and realistically preparing for ageing well. All valued their independence, believing individually they were responsible for being independent and planning for their future. Consequently, environmental planners, policy makers and practitioners need to understand that older people are a heterogeneous group and ageing policies should be geared towards older people's individual abilities and circumstances. Consideration of diversity enables inclusion of older people with a wide range of abilities and needs to achieve the perceived goals of ageing well.
Limpets and barnacles are important components of intertidal assemblages worldwide. This study examines the effects of barnacles on the foraging behaviour of the limpet Patella vulgata, which is the main algal grazer in the North-west Atlantic. The behaviour of limpets on a vertical seawall on the Isle of Man (UK) was investigated using autonomous radio-telemetry, comparing their activity patterns on plots characterized by dense barnacle cover and plots from which the barnacles had been removed. Limpet behaviour was investigated at mid-shore level, but two different elevations were considered. This experiment revealed a significant effect of barnacle cover on the activity of P. vulgata. Limpets on smooth surfaces spent a greater proportion of total time active than did limpets on barnacles. Movement activity was also greater in areas that were lower down in the tidal range. In general, limpets were either predominantly active during diurnal high or nocturnal low tides and always avoided nocturnal high tides. Individuals on barnacles at the higher elevation concentrated their activity during nocturnal low water. All the other groups of limpets (smooth surfaces on the upper level and all individuals on the lower shore) had more excursions centred around daylight hours with an equal distribution of activity between periods of low and high water. Inter-individual variability was, however, pronounced.
Environmental and biological factors contribute to sleep development during infancy. Parenting plays a particularly important role in modulating infant sleep, potentially via the serotonin system, which is itself involved in regulating infant sleep. We hypothesized that maternal neglect and serotonin system dysregulation would be associated with daytime sleep in infant rhesus monkeys. Subjects were nursery-reared infant rhesus macaques (n = 287). During the first month of life, daytime sleep-wake states were rated bihourly (0800–2100). Infants were considered neglected (n = 16) if before nursery-rearing, their mother repeatedly failed to retrieve them. Serotonin transporter genotype and concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were used as markers of central serotonin system functioning. t tests showed that neglected infants were observed sleeping less frequently, weighed less, and had higher 5-HIAA than non-neglected nursery-reared infants. Regression revealed that serotonin transporter genotype moderated the relationship between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep: in subjects possessing the Ls genotype, there was a positive correlation between 5-HIAA and daytime sleep, whereas in subjects possessing the LL genotype there was no association. These results highlight the pivotal roles that parents and the serotonin system play in sleep development. Daytime sleep alterations observed in neglected infants may partially derive from serotonin system dysregulation.