To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Animal-derived dietary protein ingestion and physical activity stimulate myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in older adults. We determined whether a non-animal-derived diet can support daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates to the same extent as an omnivorous diet. Nineteen healthy older adults (aged 66 (sem 1) years; BMI 24 (sem 1) kg/m2; twelve males, seven females) participated in a randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial during which they consumed a 3-d isoenergetic high-protein (1·8 g/kg body mass per d) diet, where the protein was provided from predominantly (71 %) animal (OMNI; n 9; six males, three females) or exclusively vegan (VEG; n 10; six males, four females; mycoprotein providing 57 % of daily protein intake) sources. During the dietary control period, participants conducted a daily bout of unilateral resistance-type leg extension exercise. Before the dietary control period, participants ingested 400 ml of deuterated water, with 50-ml doses consumed daily thereafter. Saliva samples were collected throughout to determine body water 2H enrichments, and muscle samples were collected from rested and exercised muscle to determine daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates. Deuterated water dosing resulted in body water 2H enrichments of approximately 0·78 (sem 0·03) %. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates were 13 (sem 8) (P = 0·169) and 12 (sem 4) % (P = 0·016) greater in the exercised compared with rested leg (1·59 (sem 0·12) v. 1·77 (sem 0·12) and 1·76 (sem 0·14) v. 1·93 (sem 0·12) %/d) in OMNI and VEG groups, respectively. Daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates did not differ between OMNI and VEG in either rested or exercised muscle (P > 0·05). Over the course of a 3-d intervention, omnivorous- or vegan-derived dietary protein sources can support equivalent rested and exercised daily myofibrillar protein synthesis rates in healthy older adults consuming a high-protein diet.
Equilibrium-line altitudes (ELA's) of former glaciers in the Tasman River-Lake Pukaki drainage basin of the Southern Alps were reconstructed from glacial-geologic data on former ice limits by using an assumed accumulation-area ratio of 0.6 ± 0.05. Late Holocene (Neoglacial) ELA's were depressed 140 m below present levels, whereas those of four late Pleistocene ice advances were depressed 500 m (Birch Hill), 750 m (Tekapo), 875 m (Mt. John), and 1050 m (Balmoral). Reconstructed ELA gradients are approximately parallel to one another and range from 19 to 23 m km−1. Although vertical movement on active faults and isostatic tilting due to deglaciation have both contributed to modification of reconstructed ELA gradients from their original values, the maximum resulting effect probably amounts to less than 2.0 m km−1 and is undetectable from present data.
Grayscale intensity profiles from photographic images offer a rapid means of obtaining paleoclimate proxy records from Chinese loess, dune sand, and paleosols. Although the data can be obtained using conventional 35-mm film images, a digital camera and laptop computer will produce a high-resolution grayscale profile at a field site within minutes. Comparison of grayscale profiles with profiles of magnetic susceptibility measured down loess and dune-sand sections at sites on the Loess Plateau and Tibetan Plateau in a range of altitudes and climatic regimes shows that the two parameters are highly correlated. Therefore, grayscale intensity is a convenient alternative to magnetic susceptibility for generating paleoclimatic data in the loess and desert-margin regions of China. The resolution of both grayscale and susceptibility profiles ultimately is limited by bioturbation, which is most pronounced in paleosols.
Calibrated radiocarbon dates of organic matter below and above till of the last (Fraser) glaciation provide limiting ages that constrain the chronology and duration of the last advance–retreat cycle of the Puget Lobe in the central and southeastern Puget Lowland. Seven dates for wood near the top of a thick proglacial delta have a weighted mean age of 17,420 ± 90 cal yr B.P., which is the closest limiting age for arrival of the glacier near the latitude of Seattle. A time–distance curve constructed along a flowline extending south from southwestern British Columbia to the central Puget Lowland implies an average glacier advance rate of ca. 135 m/yr. The glacier terminus reached its southernmost limit ca. 16,950 yr ago and likely remained there for ca. 100 yr. In the vicinity of Seattle, where the glacier reached a maximum thickness of 1000 m, ice covered the landscape for ca. 1020 yr. Postglacial dates constraining the timing of ice retreat in the central lowland are as old as 16,420 cal yr B.P. and show that the terminus had retreated to the northern limit of the lowland within three to four centuries after the glacial maximum. The average rate of retreat was about twice the rate of advance and was enhanced by rapid calving recession along flowline sectors where the glacier front crossed deep proglacial lakes.
The last interglacial, commonly understood as an interval with climate as warm or warmer than today, is represented by marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e, which is a proxy record of low global ice volume and high sea level. It is arbitrarily dated to begin at approximately 130,000 yr B.P. and end at 116,000 yr B.P. with the onset of the early glacial unit MIS 5d. The age of the stage is determined by correlation to uranium–thorium dates of raised coral reefs. The most detailed proxy record of interglacial climate is found in the Vostok ice core where the temperature reached current levels 132,000 yr ago and continued rising for another two millennia. Approximately 127,000 yr ago the Eemian mixed forests were established in Europe. They developed through a characteristic succession of tree species, probably surviving well into the early glacial stage in southern parts of Europe. After ca. 115,000 yr ago, open vegetation replaced forests in northwestern Europe and the proportion of conifers increased significantly farther south. Air temperature at Vostok dropped sharply. Pulses of cold water affected the northern North Atlantic already in late MIS 5e, but the central North Atlantic remained warm throughout most of MIS 5d. Model results show that the sea surface in the eastern tropical Pacific warmed when the ice grew and sea level dropped. The essentially interglacial conditions in southwestern Europe remained unaffected by ice buildup until late MIS 5d when the forests disappeared abruptly and cold water invaded the central North Atlantic ca. 107,000 yr ago.
Radiocarbon-dated marine sediments from five coastal sites along the Strait of Magellan and Beagle Channel in southernmost Chile permit construction of a curve of relative sea-level fluctuations during the Holocene. Morphologic and stratigraphic data point to coastal submergence during the early Holocene as the sea rose to a maximum level at least 3.5 m higher than present about 5000 yr ago. Progressive emergence then followed during the late Holocene. Data from widely separated localities define a smooth curve, the form of which is explainable in terms of isostatic and hydroisostatic deformation of the crust resulting from changing ice and water loads. Apparently anomalous data from one site located more than 100 km behind the outer limit of the last glaciation may reflect isostatic response to deglaciation. The sea-level curve resembles one derived by Clark and Bloom (1979, In “Proceedings of the 1978 International Symposium on Coastal Evolution in the Quaternary, Sao Paulo, Brasil,” pp. 41–60. Sao Paulo) using a spherical Earth model, both in amplitude and in the timing of the maximum submergence.
Time series depicting mountain glacier fluctuations in the Alps display generally similar patterns over the last two centuries, as do chronologies of glacier variations for the same interval from elsewhere in the Northern Hemisphere. Episodes of glacier advance consistently are associated with intervals of high average volcanic aerosol production, as inferred from acidity variations in a Greenland ice core. Advances occur whenever acidity levels rise sharply from background values to reach concentrations ≥1.2 μequiv H+/kg above background. A phase lag of about 10–15 yr, equivalent to reported response lags of Alpine glacier termini, separates the beginning of acidity increases from the beginning of subsequent ice advances. A similar relationship, but based on limited and less-reliable historical data and on lichenometric ages, is found for the preceding 2 centuries. Calibrated radiocarbon dates related to advances of non-calving and non-surging glaciers during the earlier part of the Little Ice Age display a comparable consistent pattern. An interval of reduced acidity values between about 1090 and 1230 A.D. correlates with a time of inferred glacier contraction during the Medieval Optimum. The observed close relation between Noothern Hemisphere glacier fluctuations and variations in Greenland ice-core acidity suggests that sulfur-rich aerosols generated by volcanic eruptions are a primary forcing mechanism of glacier fluctuations, and therefore of climate, on a decadal scale. The amount of surface cooling attributable to individual large eruptions or to episodes of eruptions is simlar to the probable average temperature reduction during culminations of Little Ice Age alacier advances (ca. 0.5°–1.2°C), as inferred from depression of equilibrium-line altitudes.
During the Itkillik Glaciation the Brooks Range supported an extensive mountain-glacier complex that extended for 750 km between 141° and 158°W longitude. Individual ice streams and piedmont lobes flowed as much as 50 km beyond the north and south margins of the range. Glaciers in the southern Brooks Range were longer than those farther north because of a southerly precipitation source, whereas those in the central and eastern part of the range were larger than glaciers at the extremities of the mountain system because of higher and more-extensive accumulation areas. Glacier equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) at the time of greatest advance were depressed 600 ± 100 m below present levels, whereas during a less-extensive late-glacial readvance (Alapah Mountain) ELA depression was about 300 ± 30 m. Radiocarbon dates indicate that Itkillik drift correlates with Late Wisconsin drift along the southern margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and with drift of Cordilleran glaciers in southern Alaska and the western conterminous United States deposited during the last glaciation. Itkillik I moraines represent the maximum ice advance under cold full-glacial conditions between about 24,000 and 17,000 14C y. a. Itkillik II sediments, probably deposited close to 14,000 y. a., are characterized by abundant outwash and ice-contact stratified drift implying a milder climate than that of the Itkillik I phase. Alapah Mountain moraines at the heads of valleys draining high-altitude (≥1800 m) source areas record a possible late Itkillik readvance that is not yet closely dated. Itkillik glaciers may have largely disappeared from Brooks Range valleys by the beginning of the Holocene.
Four glacial drifts that are interstratified with lava flows and tephra layers on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea demonstrate that an ice cap formed repeatedly at the summit of the volcano during the middle and late Pleistocene. The oldest drift (Pohakuloa Formation) probably was deposited shortly after eruption of a lava flow having a K/Ar age of 278,500 ± 68,500 yr. Drift of the Waihu Formation, marked by a belt of subdued end moraines, is correlated with hyaloclastite cones and associated lava flows that were erupted beneath an ice cap about 170,000–175,000 yr ago. One of four younger subglacially erupted lavas at the crest of the volcano has a K/Ar age of 41,300 ± 8300 yr. Tephra layers that antedate the last glaciation are about 29,700 to 37,200 14C yr old and underlie dune sand that is believed to correlate with drift of the Makanaka Formation deposited during the last ice advance. The late Makanaka ice cap, which covered an area of about 70 km2 and was as much as 100 m thick, is reconstructed from end moraines and limits of erratic stones that encircle the summit region. The ice cap disappeared from the summit before about 9080 yr ago. Postglacial lavas and tephra overlie the youngest drift on the upper south flank of the mountain and buried a widespread post-Makanaka soil on the lower south rift zone about 4500 14C yr ago. The island of Hawaii is subsiding isostatically due to crustal loading by Quaternary volcanic rocks, with subsidence near the midpoint of Mauna Kea estimated as about 2.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr. A curve depicting an inferred long-term subsidence rate has been used to adjust equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) of former ice caps that are calculated on the basis of reconstructed glacier topography and an assumed accumulation-area ratio of 0.6 ± 0.05. The results indicate that ELA depression was greatest during Waihu glaciation, least during Pohakuloa glaciation, and that the ELA during late Makanaka glaciation was somewhat lower than that of the early Makanaka advance. Available radiometric dates show that late Makanaka glaciation correlates with stage 2 of the marine oxygen-isotope record, and suggest that early Makanaka, Waihu, and Pohakuloa glaciations correlate, respectively, with isotope stages 4, 6, and 8. Because ice caps could have formed on Mauna Kea only after the snowline was lowered many hundreds of meters below its inferred present level, episodes of Hawaiian glaciation probably were restricted to times of maximum ice volume on the continents. The asymmetry of the late Makanaka ice cap and the southeast-descending gradient of its equilibrium line are consistent with a southeast (tradewinds) source of precipitation during the last glaciation. Although departures of glacial-age temperature and precipitation from present values are difficult to assess quantitatively, growth of former ice caps on Mauna Kea most likely was due to enhanced winter snowfall and to reduced ablation rates brought about by lower air temperature and increased cloudiness.
High-resolution paleomonsoon proxy records from peat and eolian sand–paleosol sequences at the desert–loess transition zone in China denote a rapid oscillation from cold–dry conditions (11,200–10,600 14C yr B.P.) to cool–humid conditions (10,600–10,200 14C yr B.P.), followed by a return to cold–dry climate (10,200–10,000 14C yr B.P.). Variations in precipitation proxies suggest that significant climatic variability occurred in monsoonal eastern Asia during the Younger Dryas interval. Late-glacial climate in the Chinese desert–loess belt that lies downwind from Europe was strongly influenced by cold air from high latitudes and from the North Atlantic via the westerlies. The inferred precipitation variations were likely caused by variations in the strength of the Siberian high, which influenced the pressure gradient between land and ocean and therefore influenced the position of the East Asian monsoon front.
Loess and dune sands that mantle volcanic rocks on the northwest flank of Mauna Kea volcano consist predominantly of fine-grained pyroclasts of the alkalic Laupahoehoe Volcanics produced by explosive eruptions. The loess is divided into lower and upper units, separated by a well-developed paleosol, while older and younger dune sands are separated by loess. Four interstratified tephra marker horizons aid in regional stratigraphic correlation. Radiocarbon ages of charcoal fragments within the loess, U-series ages of rhizoliths in the dune sand, and K/Ar ages and relative stratigraphic positions of lava flows provide a stratigraphic and temporal framework. The lower loess overlies lava flows less than 103,000 ± 10,000 K/Ar yr old, and14C dates from the paleosol developed at its top average ca. 48,000 yr. Loess separating the dune sand units ranges from ca. 38,000 to 25,00014C yr old; the youngest ages from the upper loess are 17,000–18,00014C yr B.P. Dips of sand-dune foreset strata, isopachs on the upper loess, and reconstructed isopachs representing cumulative thickness of tephra associated with late-Pleistocene pyroclastic eruptions suggest that vents upslope (upwind) from the sand dunes were the primary source of the eolian sediments. Average paleowind directions during the eruptive interval (ca. 50,000–15,000 yr B.P.), inferred from cinder-cone asymmetry, distribution of tephra units, orientation of dune foreset strata, and the regional pattern of loess isopachs, suggest that Mauna Kea has remained within the trade-wind belt since before the last glaciation.
Buried gullies exposed in road excavations along the margin of a loess tableland on the Loess Plateau of central China lie within a thick loess-paleosol succession that spans ≥780,000 years. Constraining ages for gully cutting and filling are provided by dates of loess and soil units cut by and capping the paleogullies. An episode of gully cutting begins at the onset of an interglaciation and ceases as the gullies begin to fill with colluvium and airborne dust during the transition to full-glacial conditions. The episodic cutting and filling of gullies implies a basic astronomical (orbital) control of gully evolution involving cyclic changes in dominant summer and winter monsoon climates, surface hydrology, and vegetation cover.
The Chinese loess-paleosol sequence constitutes an important record of variations in Asian monsoon climate over the past 2.4 myr. Magnetic susceptibility of loess and paleosols has been used as a proxy for summer monsoon intensity, while median grain size has been regarded as a measure of the strength of winter monsoon winds that were responsible for most of the dust transport. However, median grain size is only an approximate index of winter monsoon strength because both paleosols and loess have been modified, to various degrees, by weathering processes that have produced pedogenic clay. The quartz component of loess and paleosols is largely unaffected by weathering processes and therefore constitutes a more reliable proxy index of monsoon wind strength. Median grain size (Qmd) and maximum grain size (Qmax) values of monomineralic quartz isolated from the loess-paleosol section at Luochuan in the central Loess Plateau are characterized by two main intervals during the last ca. 130,000 yr when these parameters were significantly greater than 9 and 85 μm, respectively, and three main intervals when they were lower. The data imply that the winter monsoon weakened during the intervals with low Qmd and Qmax values, which coincide with marine oxygen isotope stages 5, 3, and 1, and was strongest ca. 67,000 and 20,000 yr ago during isotope stages 4 and 2. However, both quartz grainsize records display second-order high-frequency, high-amplitude variations, which are lacking in the magnetic susceptibility record, that imply rapid and significant changes in atmospheric conditions that affect dust transport and deposition.
The Baxie loess section, just east of the Tibetan Plateau, contains evidence showing that the Asian monsoon climate experienced an abrupt reversal near the end of the last glacial age. Rapid deposition of dust under cool, dry full-glacial conditions gave way to an interval of soil development and reduced dust influx attributed to a strengthening of the warm, moist summer monsoon. A subsequent abrupt increase in dust deposition, a response to a weakening of the summer monsoon, was later followed by renewed soil formation as summer monsoon circulation again intensified during the early Holocene. By one interpretation, the thin upper loess is a manifestation of the European Younger Dryas oscillation; however, in this case the available 14C ages require either that (1) onset of loess deposition lagged the beginning of the Younger Dryas event in Europe by as much as 2000 calibrated 14C years or (2) all the 14C ages are too young, possibly due to contamination. Alternatively, the late-glacial paleosol, the top of which is synchronous with the abrupt end of the late-glacial δ18O anomaly in the Dye 3 Greenland ice core, records the Younger Dryas event. Such an interpretation is consistent with general circulation model simulations of Younger Dryas climate that show strong seasonality and a strengthened summer monsoon, and with marine cores from the western Pacific Ocean that contain evidence of pronounced cooling of surface waters during Younger Dryas time.