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Contrary to public perception, child sex offending (CSO) and paedophilia are not the same. Only half of all cases of CSO are motivated by paedophilic preference, and a paedophilic preference does not necessarily lead to CSO. However, studies that investigated clinical factors accompanying and contributing to paedophilia so far mainly relied on paedophiles with a history of CSO. The aim of this study was to distinguish between factors associated with sexual preference (paedophile versus non-paedophile) and offender status (with versus without CSO). Accordingly, a 2 (sexual preference) × 2 (offender status) factorial design was used for a comprehensive clinical assessment of paedophiles with and without a history of CSO (n = 83, n = 79 respectively), child sex offenders without paedophilia (n = 32) and healthy controls (n = 148). Results indicated that psychiatric comorbidities, sexual dysfunctions and adverse childhood experiences were more common among paedophiles and child sex offenders than controls. Offenders and non-offenders differed in age, intelligence, educational level and experience of childhood sexual abuse, whereas paedophiles and non-paedophiles mainly differed in sexual characteristics (e.g., additional paraphilias, onset and current level of sexual activity). Regression analyses were more powerful in segregating offender status than sexual preference (mean classification accuracy: 76% versus 68%). In differentiating between offence- and preference-related factors this study improves clinical understanding of both phenomena and may be used to develop scientifically grounded CSO prevention and treatment programmes. It also highlights that some deviations are not traceable to just one of these two factors, thus raising the issue of the mechanism underlying both phenomena.
Dioecious plant species differ in floral morphology and rewards between females and males. Pistillate flowers on female plants often lack pollen and can be less attractive to pollinators, which can have consequences for the visitation rates of the sexes. We studied the pollination ecology of the dioecious tree Commiphora harveyi in a coastal scarp forest in eastern South Africa. Floral display, visiting insect species, visitation rate and natural fruit set were recorded. Additionally, we pollinated flowers by hand to determine experimental fruit set. We found that male trees had more and larger flowers per inflorescence than female trees. Both sexes produced nectar in low amounts. During 203.5 h of observation we recorded 28 insect species visiting the flowers. No difference in mean visitation rate (0.20 visits per flower h−1) was recorded between the sexes. The daily and seasonal pattern was similar between the sexes. The natural fruit set was low (3.8%) and increased significantly with hand-pollination (45.5%), an indication of pollen limitation. We compared our results with the pollination ecology of C. guillauminii in Madagascar, a dioecious tree species on an island with a depauperate pollinator fauna. This comparison revealed a similar pattern with low visitation rates, low insect diversity and low fruit set, suggesting that this pattern may be more common in dioecious tree species than previously reported in the literature.
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