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To examine the incidence of central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) over time and to determine risk factors for CLABSI in hospitalized children.
Prospective cohort study.
Pediatric tertiary care referral center in Halifax, Nova Scotia, serving a population of 2.3 million.
Patients ages 0–18 years with central venous catheters (CVCs) inserted at this facility between 1995 and 2013.
Participants were followed from CVC insertion to CLABSI event or until CVC removal. Data were prospectively collected by clinicians, infection prevention and control staff, and nursing staff for the purposes of patient care, surveillance, and quality improvement. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to identify risk factors for CLABSI.
Among 5,648 patients, 385 developed CLABSI (0.74 CLABSI per 1,000 line days; or 3.87 per 1,000 in-hospital line days). Most infections occurred within 60 days of insertion. CLABSI rates decreased from 4.87 per 1,000 in-hospital line days in 1995 to 0.78 per 1,000 in-hospital line days in 2013, corresponding to an 84% reduction. A temporal association of CLABSI reduction with a hand hygiene promotion campaign was identified. CVC type, number of lumens, dressing type, insertion vein, and being in the critical care unit were statistically significantly associated with CLABSI.
Hospital-wide surveillance over an 18-year period identified children at highest risk for CLABSI and decreasing risk over time; this decrease was temporally associated with a hand hygiene campaign.
Food security (FS) exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their needs. The present research sought to determine whether students from households experiencing moderate or severe food insecurity (FI) had poorer diet quality, higher body weights and poorer psychosocial outcomes than students from households classed as having high FS or marginal FI status.
Population-based survey conducted in schools. Multiple regression analysis was used to explore associations between FS status (high FS; marginal, moderate, severe FI), dietary behaviours and intake, and health-related outcomes (body weight, quality of life, mood, peer relationships, externalizing problems).
Nova Scotia, Canada.
Grade 5 students (n 5853), aged 10–11 years, with complete information on FS status and student outcomes.
In this sample, rates of household FS were 73·5 % (high FS), 8·3 % (marginal FI) 10·2 % (moderate FI) and 7·1 % (severe FI status). Students living in households experiencing moderate or severe FI had poorer diet quality, higher BMI and poorer psychosocial outcomes than students classed as having high FS or marginal FI.
These findings provide important evidence for policy makers on the prevalence of FI among families in Nova Scotia with grade 5 children and its relationship with childhood nutrition, psychosocial and quality of life factors, and weight status.
Poor nutritional habits and physical inactivity are two health behaviours believed to be linked with increasing rates of overweight and obesity in children. The objective of the present study was to determine whether children who reported healthier behaviours, specifically in relation to nutrition and physical activity, also had lower health-care utilization.
Population-based cross-sectional study, linking survey data from the 2003 Children's Lifestyle and School Performance Study (CLASS) with Nova Scotia administrative health data. Health-care utilization was defined as both (i) the total physician costs and (ii) the number of physician visits, for each child from 2001 to 2006. Exposures were two indices of healthy eating, the Diet Quality Index and the Healthy Eating Index, and self-reported physical activity and screen time behaviours.
Elementary schools in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
Grade 5 students and their parents; of the 5200 students who participated in CLASS and completed surveys, 4380 (84 %) could be linked with information in the administrative data sets.
The study found a relationship between both indices of healthy eating and a borderline significant trend towards lower health-care utilization in this population sample of children. No statistically significant relationships were seen for physical activity or screen time.
Both measures of diet quality produced similar results. The study suggests that healthy eating habits established in childhood may be associated with lower health-care utilization, although further research over a longer time frame is needed to demonstrate statistical significance.
To examine the association between frequency of assisting with home meal preparation and fruit and vegetable preference and self-efficacy for making healthier food choices among grade 5 children in Alberta, Canada.
A cross-sectional survey design was used. Children were asked how often they helped prepare food at home and rated their preference for twelve fruits and vegetables on a 3-point Likert-type scale. Self-efficacy was measured with six items on a 4-point Likert-type scale asking children their level of confidence in selecting and eating healthy foods at home and at school.
Schools (n 151) located in Alberta, Canada.
Grade 5 students (n 3398).
A large majority (83–93 %) of the study children reported helping in home meal preparation at least once monthly. Higher frequency of helping prepare and cook food at home was associated with higher fruit and vegetable preference and with higher self-efficacy for selecting and eating healthy foods.
Encouraging children to be more involved in home meal preparation could be an effective health promotion strategy. These findings suggest that the incorporation of activities teaching children how to prepare simple and healthy meals in health promotion programmes could potentially lead to improvement in dietary habits.
To examine the association between diet quality and the diagnosis of an internalizing disorder in children and adolescents.
A prospective study examining the relationship between diet quality and mental health. FFQ responses of 3757 children were used to calculate a composite score for diet quality and its four components: variety, adequacy, moderation and balance. Physicians’ diagnoses on internalizing disorders were obtained by linking the children's dietary information to administrative health data. Negative binomial regression models were used to examine the association between diet quality and diagnosis of an internalizing disorder.
The Canadian province of Nova Scotia.
A provincially representative sample of grade 5 students (age 10–11 years).
Diet quality was not found to be associated with internalizing disorder in a statistically significant manner (incidence rate ratio = 1·09; 95 % CI 0·73, 1·63). However, relative to children with little variety in their diets, children with greater variety in their diet had statistically significant lower rates of internalizing disorder in subsequent years (incidence rate ratio = 0·45; 95 % CI 0·25, 0·82).
These findings suggest the importance of variety in children's diet and opportunities in the prevention of adolescent depression and anxiety.
Canada’s Aboriginal population is vulnerable to food insecurity and increasingly lives off-reserve. The Canadian Community Health Survey, Cycle 2.2 Nutrition, was used to compare the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of food insecurity between non-Aboriginal and off-reserve Aboriginal households.
Food insecurity status was based on Health Canada’s revised interpretation of responses to the US Household Food Security Survey Module. Logistic regression was used to assess if Aboriginal households were at higher risk for food insecurity than non-Aboriginal households, adjusting for household sociodemographic factors.
Households (n 35,107), 1528 Aboriginal and 33 579 non-Aboriginal.
Thirty-three per cent of Aboriginal households were food insecure as compared with 9 % of non-Aboriginal households (univariate OR 5·2, 95 % CI 4·2, 6·3). Whereas 14 % of Aboriginal households had severe food insecurity, 3 % of non-Aboriginal households did. The prevalence of sociodemographic risk factors for household food insecurity was higher for Aboriginal households. Aboriginal households were more likely to have three or more children (14 % v. 5 %), be lone-parent households (2 1 % v. 5 %), not have home ownership (52 % v. 31 %), have educational attainment of secondary school or less (43 % v. 26 %), have income from sources other than wages or salaries (38 % v. 29 %), and be in the lowest income adequacy category (33 % v. 12 %). Adjusted for these sociodemographic factors, Aboriginal households retained a higher risk for food insecurity than non-Aboriginal households (OR 2·6, 95 % CI 2·1, 3·2).
Off-reserve Aboriginal households in Canada merit special attention for income security and poverty alleviation initiatives.
To examine whether eating while watching television poses a risk for poor nutrition and excess body weight over and above that of time spent watching television.
We analysed data of grade 5 students participating in a comprehensive population-based survey in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. This survey included the Harvard’s Youth Food Frequency Questionnaire, students’ height and weight measurements, and a parent survey. We applied multivariable linear and logistic random effects models to quantify the associations of watching television and eating while watching television with diet quality and body weight.
The province of Nova Scotia, Canada.
Grade 5 students (n 4966).
Eating supper while watching television negatively affected the consumption of fruits and vegetables and overall diet quality. More frequent supper while watching television was associated with more soft drink consumption, a higher percentage energy intake from sugar out of total energy from carbohydrate, a higher percentage energy intake from fat, and a higher percentage energy intake from snack food. These associations appeared independent of time children spent watching television. Both watching television and eating while watching television were positively and independently associated with overweight.
Our observations suggest that both sedentary behaviours from time spent watching television as well as poor nutrition as a result of eating while watching television contribute to overweight in children. They justify current health promotion targeting time spent watching television and call for promotion of family meals as a means to avoid eating in front of the television.
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