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Depression affects approximately 27% of adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney failure (ESKF). Depression in this population is associated with impaired quality of life and increased mortality. The extent of inflammation and the impact on depression in CKD/ESKF is yet to be established. Through a systematic literature review and meta-analysis, we aim to understand the relationship between depression and inflammation in CKD/ESKF patients.
We searched nine electronic databases for published studies until January 2022. Titles and abstracts were screened against inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data extraction and study quality assessment was carried out independently by two reviewers. A meta-analysis was carried out where appropriate; otherwise a narrative review of studies was completed.
Sixty studies met our inclusion criteria and entered the review (9481 patients included in meta-analysis). Meta-analysis of cross-sectional associations revealed significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory biomarkers; C-reactive protein; Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in patients with depressive symptoms (DS) compared to patients without DS. Significantly lower levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were found in patients with DS compared to patients without DS. Considerable heterogeneity was detected in the analysis for most inflammatory markers.
We found evidence for an association of higher levels of pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines and DS in patients with CKD/ESKF. Clinical trials are needed to investigate whether anti-inflammatory therapies will be effective in the prevention and treatment of DS in these patients with multiple comorbidities.
Psychiatric mother and baby units (MBUs) are recommended for severe perinatal mental illness, but effectiveness compared with other forms of acute care remains unknown.
We hypothesised that women admitted to MBUs would be less likely to be readmitted to acute care in the 12 months following discharge, compared with women admitted to non-MBU acute care (generic psychiatric wards or crisis resolution teams (CRTs)).
Quasi-experimental cohort study of women accessing acute psychiatric care up to 1 year postpartum in 42 healthcare organisations across England and Wales. Primary outcome was readmission within 12 months post-discharge. Propensity scores were used to account for systematic differences between MBU and non-MBU participants. Secondary outcomes included assessment of cost-effectiveness, experience of services, unmet needs, perceived bonding, observed mother–infant interaction quality and safeguarding outcome.
Of 279 women, 108 (39%) received MBU care, 62 (22%) generic ward care and 109 (39%) CRT care only. The MBU group (n = 105) had similar readmission rates to the non-MBU group (n = 158) (aOR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.86–1.04, P = 0.29; an absolute difference of −5%, 95% CI −14 to 4%). Service satisfaction was significantly higher among women accessing MBUs compared with non-MBUs; no significant differences were observed for any other secondary outcomes.
We found no significant differences in rates of readmission, but MBU advantage might have been masked by residual confounders; readmission will also depend on quality of care after discharge and type of illness. Future studies should attempt to identify the effective ingredients of specialist perinatal in-patient and community care to improve outcomes.