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To evaluate the performance of an FFQ for estimating dietary contributions of NOVA groups to individuals’ diets with a specific focus on ultra-processed foods (UPF) compared with a single 24-h dietary recall (24HR).
All consumed foods and beverages assess with both a 109-item FFQ and a single 24HR were classified into one of four NOVA groups: natural or minimally processed foods (MPF), processed culinary ingredients (PCI), processed foods (PF) and UPF. The contributions of each NOVA group to daily intakes of energy, protein, fat, saturated fat, carbohydrate, fibre and Na were expressed as crude intake, energy-adjusted intake and percentage intake. Mean differences, correlation coefficients and joint classification were calculated for intakes of energy and nutrients from each NOVA group between the FFQ and the 24HR.
The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016.
Adults aged 19–64 years (n 3189).
The smallest group-mean differences between the two methods were observed in UPF (2–40 %). The greatest average Pearson’s correlation coefficients between the FFQ and 24HR were shown in dietary contributions of UPF (r = 0·22–0·25 for MPF; r = 0·02–0·05 for PCI; r = 0·11–0·18 for PF; r = 0·26–0·30 for UPF). The greatest agreement in quartile classification between the FFQ and the 24HR was observed in dietary contributions of UPF (70·0–71·5 % for MPF; 64·2–68·8 % for PCI; 66·9–69·2 % for PF; 71·8–73·9 % for UPF).
The use of the FFQ for estimating absolute intake of UPF may not be encouraged in its current form, but it still may be used for relative comparisons such as quantile categorisation.
To describe prenatal and postpartum consumption of water, cows’ milk, 100 % juice and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) among women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) programme in New York City (NYC) and to identify correlates of SSB intake in this population.
Cross-sectional data were collected from structured questionnaires that included validated beverage frequency questionnaires with the assistance of container samples. The association of maternal and household factors and non-SSB consumption with habitual daily energetic (kJ (kcal)) intake from SSB was assessed by using multivariable median regression.
WIC programme in NYC, NY. Data were collected in 2017.
388 pregnant or postpartum women (infant aged <2 years) from the NYC First 1000 Days Study.
Median age was 28 years (interquartile range (IQR) 24–34); 94·1 % were Hispanic/Latina, and 31·4 % were pregnant. Overall, 87·7 % of pregnant and 89·1% of postpartum women consumed SSB ≥ once weekly, contributing to a median daily energetic intake of 410 kJ (98 kcal) (IQR (113–904 kJ) 27–216) and 464 kJ (111 kcal) (IQR (163–1013 kJ) 39–242), respectively. In adjusted analyses, only consumption of 100 % juice was associated with greater median energetic intake from SSB (adjusted β for each additional ounce = 13; 95% CI 8, 31 (3·2; 95 % CI 2·0, 7·3).
Among pregnant and postpartum women in WIC-enrolled families, interventions to reduce SSB consumption should include reduction of 100 % juice consumption as a co-target of the intervention.
Job-related chronic stress has been discussed as a risk factor for weight change and metabolic disorders. The current study was conducted to understand the situations in which stress-induced eating occurs among office workers and how workers perceive stress to influence their daily eating practices and weight change.
In-depth, one-on-one interviews were conducted with office workers.
Metropolitan areas in South Korea.
Twenty-two office workers from thirteen companies participated in the study.
Most participants mentioned that they often felt work-related stress and reported various levels of perceived stress, as measured with open-ended questions. The main sources of work stress were (i) the nature of job characteristics, (ii) performance evaluations and (iii) relationships within the organisation. Participants linked stress with increased food consumption and cravings for sweet, savoury and greasy foods. Many participants emphasised the links between multiple health behaviours and stress. Not only dietary choices but also alcohol consumption, sleeping difficulty and insufficient physical activity were related to coping with work stress and demands. Finally, most participants who perceived work stress believed that their weight gain in adulthood was triggered by work stress.
It is necessary to consider promoting behavioural modifications to support weight management and providing a means for stress management and the minimisation of stress-inducing working environments for workers to maintain or achieve a healthy weight and to prevent chronic disease incidence.
The present study was conducted to examine barriers to and facilitators of serving reduced-sodium meals (RSM) in worksite cafeterias.
We conducted in-depth interviews with key stakeholders in food catering companies.
Food catering companies at various customer sites in South Korea.
A total of nineteen interviews with twenty-five participants from ten catering companies were conducted. Sixteen on-site dietitians and nine managers from the catering companies’ headquarters participated in the interviews.
Four main themes emerged from the interviews. First, key stakeholders’ psychosocial characteristics (perception, intention and knowledge) are important in serving RSM in worksite cafeterias. Second, skills and techniques related to measuring sodium content and preparing RSM were emphasized by the interviewees. Third, the lack of various delicious low-sodium menus is a barrier to serving RSM. Lastly, a number of environmental factors were addressed, which include social support for reduced-sodium diets (a facilitator) and pressure to maintain profit margins (a barrier), that contribute to serving meals with less salt. Based on these factors, various recommendations for future sodium reduction policies and programmes were suggested.
It is important to implement population-wide sodium reduction as a means of preventing CVD and stroke. The study provided important facilitators of and barriers to serving RSM in worksite cafeterias, which could be helpful in developing environmental interventions that promote low-sodium diets.
According to the Federal Trade Commission, in 2009, the top food category with teen-directed marketing expenditures was sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The present study reports on exposure to SSB advertisements using self-report data from adolescents.
Cross-sectional study design using descriptive statistics to assess self-reported frequency of exposure to SSB advertisements and multivariable logistic regression to examine associations between frequency of SSB advertising exposure and sociodemographic variables.
Online survey conducted at home.
US adolescents aged 12–17 years (n 847).
Among the surveyed adolescents, 42 % to 54 % reported seeing/hearing SSB advertisements ≥1 time/d. Those aged 14–15 years were more likely to report seeing/hearing soda, sports drink and energy drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than 16- to 17-year-olds. Males were more likely to report seeing/hearing sports drink advertising ≥1 time/d than females. Non-Hispanic black adolescents were more likely to report seeing/hearing fruit drink and sports drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than non-Hispanic white adolescents. Adolescents whose parents had high-school education or less were more likely to report seeing/hearing soda, fruit drink and energy drink advertisements ≥1 time/d than adolescents whose parents were college graduates.
Almost half of the adolescents sampled reported daily SSB advertising exposure, with higher exposure among African Americans and adolescents with less educated parents. These data can help inform potential actions that decision makers might take, such as education of adolescents and their caregivers on the potential impact of beverage advertising, especially among groups at higher risk for obesity.
Research is limited on whether mistrust of tap water discourages plain water intake and leads to a greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The objective of the present study was to examine demographic differences in perceptions of tap water safety and determine if these perceptions are associated with intake of SSB and plain water.
The study examined perceptions of tap water safety and their cross-sectional association with intake of SSB and plain water. Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of tap water perceptions with SSB and plain water intake were also examined.
Nationally weighted data from the 2010 HealthStyles Survey (n 4184).
US adults aged ≥18 years.
Overall, 13·0 % of participants disagreed that their local tap water was safe to drink and 26·4 % of participants agreed that bottled water was safer than tap water. Both mistrust of tap water safety and favouring bottled water differed by region, age, race/ethnicity, income and education. The associations of tap water mistrust with intake of SSB and plain water were modified by race/ethnicity (P < 0·05). Non-white racial/ethnic groups who disagreed that their local tap water was safe to drink were more likely to report low intake of plain water. The odds of consuming ≥1 SSB/d among Hispanics who mistrusted their local tap water was twice that of Hispanics who did not (OR = 2·0; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·3).
Public health efforts to promote healthy beverages should recognize the potential impact of tap water perceptions on water and SSB intake among minority populations.
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