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The North American members of the genus Operophtera Hübner (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) are revised to include three species: O. brumata (L.), O. bruceata (Hulst), and O. danbyi (Hulst). Operophtera occidentalis (Hulst) is now treated as a subspecies of O. bruceata. All species are illustrated and characters to distinguish the species are given. The most useful characters for separating O. brumata from O. bruceata include the following: (1) hindwing dorsal surface with discal dot, which is almost always visible on O. bruceata but absent from O. brumata; (2) forewing colour, which is grey-brown or light brown in O. bruceata but reddish-brown in O. brumata; (3) abdomen colour, which is golden-brown to brown in western O. bruceata but brown in O. brumata; and (4) the costa of the forewing ventral surface, which is usually golden-brown in O. bruceata but brown in O. brumata. The structure of the genitalia of these two species allows hybridization between O. bruceata males and O. brumata females, but not vice versa.Hypothesized species interrelationships between palaearctic and nearctic Operophtera are illustrated in a cladogram. Maps for the distribution of each species are also included.
In 1997, larvae of the cutworm moth, Ochropleura implecta Lafontaine, caused economic damage to cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon Aiton; Ericaceae) on several neighbouring farms in Richmond (49° 10′N, 123°07′W), British Columbia, Canada. This is the first report of O. implecta on cranberries. Published host records for O. implecta include willow and a variety of herbaceous plants, such as clover and endive (Crumb 1956; Lafontaine 1998), but there are no reports of pest status on any crop. On the affected cranberry farms, larvae partially consumed unripe and ripe berries in July and August. On one farm, damaged fruit was downgraded from fresh fruit sales to the juice market, resulting in an estimated loss of $40 000 Can.
When male drone flies (Eristalis tenax (L.)) of the spring and summer generations stop dispersing, they settle within individual home ranges that provide them with sheltering, resting, basking, grooming, feeding, and mating sites. Away from its mating place, a resident male rarely responds to other insects. On its mating site, however, it is territorial, attacking alien species, such as bees, wasps, and butterflies, as well as conspecific intruders. Territorial duty is demanding, and resident males take rest periods outside their territories whenever they can. When prevented from doing so, either by sky conditions which confine them to the territory, or by crowding which eliminates many neutral sites, they become increasingly aggressive. Males on open, horizontal territories (e.g., in flowerbeds) are more likely to notice intruders, and therefore are more liable to attack them, than males on vertical territories (e.g., on broad-leaved shrubs). The aggressiveness of E. tenax has social and ecological ramifications beyond its own species, since bees may stop foraging and aphidophagous syrphids may not oviposit in places where drone flies are exceptionally active.
The palearctic cutworm, Apamea ophiogramma (Esper), is reported from North America for the first time. Four specimens were collected at a light trap in Langley, British Columbia, in 1989, 19 in 1990, and 38 in 1991. Descriptions of wing markings and genitalic characters that distinguish A. ophiogramma from the nearctic Oligia fractilinea (Grt.) are provided.
In field studies of pheromone-mediated mating disruption of lepidopteran pests, there are several ways to determine if mate location has been disrupted. One indirect method is to count the number of males caught in sticky traps baited with synthetic pheromone. A reduced catch in pheromone-treated plots relative to control plots shows that males were unable to find the source of synthetic pheromone and suggests that mating has been disrupted. More direct methods are: (1) to count the number of males attracted to sticky traps baited with virgin females; or (2) to assess the incidence of mating of (a) feral females collected in light-, bait- or other traps, (b) females caged with males in pheromone-treated areas, or (c) virgin females placed in the field and later retrieved. Females may be tethered with thread to non-sticky traps or partially dealated and placed on a “mating table” from which they cannot escape.
Blackheaded fireworm (Rhopobota naevana (Hbn.)) mating can be disrupted by pheromone components released from spiral polyvinyl chloride (PVC) dispensers in large field plots on cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon (Aiton) (Ericaceae)) farms. The main pheromone component ((Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (Z11-14:Ac)) or a blend similar to natural pheromone (Z11-14:Ac, (Z)-11-tetradecen-1-ol (Z11-14:OH), and (Z)-9-dodecen-1-ol acetate (Z9-12:Ac)) was released from PVC dispensers into 0.8-ha plots on cranberry farms. Regardless of the treatment, free-flying males in treatment plots located fewer than 5% of individually caged virgin females, whereas mate location in most control plots ranged from 14%–75%. Location of pheromone lures loaded with 1.0 mg of the three-component blend was reduced in both treatments, but not to the same extent as was location of females. The magnitude of mating disruption indicated by 0.01-mg lures was similar to that indicated by caged females. Estimated release rates from dispensers loaded with Z11-14:Ac alone were linear and similar in both years of the study, declining from 575–720 mg/ha per day to 175–220 mg/ha per day after 100 days. Three-component dispensers placed in the field in July 1994 showed a steeper decline in release rates of Z11-14:Ac and a change in component ratios from 6.2:2.5:1 to 8:2:1 (Z11-14:Ac: Z11-14:OH: Z9-12:Ac) over the 60-day release period. After one season of mating disruption, the number of eggs and the number of foliar samples with larval feeding shelters were not consistently reduced in treatment plots. Mated females may have dispersed into the plots and oviposited. PVC dispensers effectively disseminate pheromone for mating disruption but are labor-intensive to use. In the cranberry system, their use might be limited to research plots and isolated farms of <8 ha.
The idea of comparing Nazi Germany with the Soviet Union under Stalin is not a novel one. Notwithstanding some impressive efforts of late, however, the endeavor has achieved only limited success. Where comparisons have been made, the two histories seem to pass each other like trains in the night. That is, while there is some sense that they cross paths and, hence, share a time and place – if, indeed, it is not argued that they mimic each other in a deleterious war – little else seems to fit. And this is quite apart from those approaches which, on principle, deny any similarity because they consider Nazism and Stalinism to be at opposite ends of the political spectrum. Yet, despite the very real difficulties inherent in comparing the two regimes and an irreducible political resistance against such comparison, attempts to establish their commonalities have never ceased – not least as a result of the inclination to place both regimes in opposition to Western, “liberal” traditions. More often than not, comparison of Stalinism and Nazism worked by way of implicating a third party – the United States. Whatever the differences between them, they appeared small in comparison with the chasm that separated them from liberal-constitutional states and free societies. Since a three-way comparison might entail associating liberal democracy with its opposite, if only by bridging the chasm between them through the act of comparison, this procedure was commonly shunned – or deliberately used to suggest that, despite it all, the three regimes were not so far apart.
In essays written jointly by specialists on Soviet and German history, the contributors to this book rethink and rework the nature of Stalinism and Nazism and establish a new methodology for viewing their histories that goes well beyond the now-outdated twentieth-century models of totalitarianism, ideology, and personality. Doing the labor of comparison gives us the means to ascertain the historicity of the two extraordinary regimes and the wreckage they have left. With the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union, scholars of Europe are no longer burdened with the political baggage that constricted research and conditioned interpretation and have access to hitherto closed archives. The time is right for a fresh look at the two gigantic dictatorships of the twentieth century and for a return to the original intent of thought on totalitarian regimes - understanding the intertwined trajectories of socialism and nationalism in European and global history.