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Context: The detection and replication of genes involved in psychiatric outcome has been notoriously difficult. Phenotypic measurement has been offered as one explanation, although most of this discussion has focused on problems with binary diagnoses. Objective: This article focuses on two additional components of phenotypic measurement that deserve further consideration in evaluating genetic associations: (1) the measure used to reflect the outcome of interest, and (2) the developmental stage of the study population. We focus our discussion of these issues around the construct of impulsivity and externalizing disorders, and the association of these measures with a specific gene, GABRA2. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were analyzed from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism Phase IV assessment of adolescents and young adults (ages 12–26; N = 2,128). Main Outcome Measures: Alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, childhood conduct disorder, and adult antisocial personality disorder symptoms were measured by psychiatric interview; Achenbach youth/adult self-report externalizing scale; Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking scale; Barratt Impulsivity scale; NEO extraversion and consciousness. Results: GABRA2 was associated with subclinical levels of externalizing behavior as measured by the Achenbach in both the adolescent and young adult samples. Contrary to previous associations in adult samples, it was not associated with clinical-level DSM symptom counts of any externalizing disorders in these younger samples. There was also association with sensation-seeking and extraversion, but only in the adolescent sample. There was no association with the Barratt impulsivity scale or conscientiousness. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the pathway by which GABRA2 initially confers risk for eventual alcohol problems begins with a predisposition to sensation-seeking early in adolescence. The findings support the heterogeneous nature of impulsivity and demonstrate that both the measure used to assess a construct of interest and the age of the participants can have profound implications for the detection of genetic associations.
This study was focused on contextual variations in the parenting
dimensions salient for preadolescent adjustment. The sample consisted of
614 sixth graders from two communities, one low and the other high income.
Parenting dimensions included those known to be significant in each
socioeconomic context: isolation from parents (emotional and physical),
and parents' emphasis on achievements (overall expectations and
emphasis on integrity over success). Adjustment outcomes included
subjective well-being as well as school competence. Contradicting
stereotypes, results showed that on average, very affluent children can
perceive their parents as emotionally and physically unavailable to the
same degree that youth in serious poverty do. The ramifications for
adjustment also seem to be largely similar: Closeness to parents was
beneficial for all, just as criticism was deleterious. Even after
considering the quality of parent–child relationships, parents'
physical absence (e.g., at dinner) connoted vulnerability for distress and
for poor school performance in both groups. The connotations of a few
parenting dimensions varied by context and gender; these variations are
discussed as are overall implications for future research and
practice.Preparation of the manuscript was
funded in part by grants from the National Institutes of Health
(RO1-DA10726, RO1-DA11498, R01-DA14385), the William T. Grant Foundation,
and the Spencer Foundation.
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