Generating compressive stresses in aerospace materials is an important consideration for enhancing fatigue life. Shot peening and cold expansion of holes are two techniques for imparting beneficial compressive stresses. X-ray diffraction is a direct method for measuring elastic strains. Diffraction peak widths are an indication of plastic strain. Elastic and plastic strains can be used to better assess the true condition of a component. This paper presents elastic and plastic strain information from shot peened and cold expanded aerospace materials. Examination of surface data showed which shot peened samples had the deeper layer of compressive stresses. Likewise, elastic and plastic strain data enabled successful ranking of the holes in terms of the maximum amount of cold working.