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The fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) gene has been implicated with obesity and dietary intake predominantly in European populations. We assessed the association between the FTO rs9939609 variant with body fat distribution and dietary intake in a multi-ethnic population. Aboriginal, Chinese, European and South Asian participants living in Canada (n=706) were assessed for body fat and inner-abdominal fat using imaging techniques, dietary intake and genotyped for the FTO rs9939609 variant. Linear regression was used to study the associations between the minor allele of the variant and measures of adiposity and dietary intake. Minor allele frequencies were: Aboriginals (17%), Chinese (17%), Europeans (39%) and South Asians (31%). The rs9939609 variant was associated with intake of dietary macronutrients in Aboriginals and Europeans only. In the total population, there were positive associations between the rs9939609 minor allele and greater fat mass (0·94±0·56 kg, P=0·045), per cent body fat (0·7±0·4%, P=0·031), relative greater subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (4·9±2·8%, P=0·039) and percent daily calories from fat (0·4±0·2%, P=0·064). Our findings suggest that the FTO rs9939609 minor allele may be associated with dietary intake in adults and is positively associated with regional fat deposition.
The goal of the present study was to examine the influence of community environment on the nutritional status (weight-for-age and height-for-age) of children (aged 0–59 months) in Bangladesh. In addition, we tested the association between specific characteristics of community environments and child nutritional status.
The data are from the nationally representative 2004 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey.
Respondents were ever-married women (aged 15–49 years) and their children (n 5731), residing in 361 communities. Child nutritional outcomes are physical measurements of weight-for-age and height-for-age in sd units. We considered the following attributes of community environments potentially related to child nutrition: (i) community water and sanitation infrastructure; (ii) availability of community health and education services; (iii) community employment and social participation; and (iv) education level of the community.
Multilevel regression analysis showed that the spatial distribution of maternal and child covariates did not entirely explain the between-community variation in child nutritional status. The education level of the community emerged as the strongest community-level predictor of child height-for-age (highest v. lowest tertile, β = 0·18 (se 0·07)) and weight-for-age (highest v. lowest tertile, β = 0·21 (se 0·06)). In the height-for-age model, community employment and social participation also emerged as being statistically significant (highest v. lowest tertile, β = 0·13 (se = 0·06)).
The community environment influences child nutrition in Bangladesh, and maternal- and child-level covariates may fail to capture the entire influence of communities. Interventions to reduce child undernutrition in developing countries should take into consideration the wider community context.
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