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Current psychiatric diagnoses, although heritable, have not been clearly mapped onto distinct underlying pathogenic processes. The same symptoms often occur in multiple disorders, and a substantial proportion of both genetic and environmental risk factors are shared across disorders. However, the relationship between shared symptoms and shared genetic liability is still poorly understood.
Well-characterised, cross-disorder samples are needed to investigate this matter, but few currently exist. Our aim is to develop procedures to purposely curate and aggregate genotypic and phenotypic data in psychiatric research.
As part of the Cardiff MRC Mental Health Data Pathfinder initiative, we have curated and harmonised phenotypic and genetic information from 15 studies to create a new data repository, DRAGON-Data. To date, DRAGON-Data includes over 45 000 individuals: adults and children with neurodevelopmental or psychiatric diagnoses, affected probands within collected families and individuals who carry a known neurodevelopmental risk copy number variant.
We have processed the available phenotype information to derive core variables that can be reliably analysed across groups. In addition, all data-sets with genotype information have undergone rigorous quality control, imputation, copy number variant calling and polygenic score generation.
DRAGON-Data combines genetic and non-genetic information, and is available as a resource for research across traditional psychiatric diagnostic categories. Algorithms and pipelines used for data harmonisation are currently publicly available for the scientific community, and an appropriate data-sharing protocol will be developed as part of ongoing projects (DATAMIND) in partnership with Health Data Research UK.
Molecular weight (Mw) effects in poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) influence both processability and combustion behavior in energetic Al–PVDF filaments. Results show decreased viscosity in unloaded and fuel-lean (i.e., 15 wt% Al) filaments. In highly loaded filaments (i.e., 30 wt% Al), reduced viscosity is minimal due to higher electrostatic interaction between Al particles and low Mw chains as confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Thermal and combustion analysis further corroborates this story as exothermic activity decreases in PVDF with smaller Mw chains. Differential scanning calorimetry and Thermogravimetric analysis show reduced reaction enthalpy and lower char yield in low Mw PVDF. Enthalpy reduction trends continued in nonequilibrium burn rate studies, which confirm that burn rate decreases in the presence of low Mw PVDF. Furthermore, powder X-ray patterns of post-burn products suggest that low Mw PVDF decomposition creates a diffusion barrier near the Al particle surface resulting in negligible AlF3 formation in fuel-rich filaments.
Background: Enhanced Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT-E) (Fairburn, Cooper and Shafran, 2003) was developed as a treatment approach for eating disorders focusing on both core psychopathology and additional maintenance mechanisms. Aims: To evaluate treatment outcomes associated with CBT-E in a NHS Eating Disorders Service for adults with bulimia and atypical eating disorders and to make comparisons with a previously published randomized controlled trial (Fairburn et al., 2009) and “real world” evaluation (Byrne, Fursland, Allen and Watson, 2011). Method: Participants were referred to the eating disorder service between 2002 and 2011. They were aged between 18–65 years, registered with a General Practitioner within the catchment area, and had experienced symptoms fulfilling criteria for BN or EDNOS for a minimum of 6 months. Results: CBT-E was commenced by 272 patients, with 135 completing treatment. Overall, treatment was associated with significant improvements in eating disorder and associated psychopathology, for both treatment completers and the intention to treat sample. Conclusions: Findings support dissemination of CBT-E in this context, with significant improvements in eating disorder psychopathology. Improvements to global EDE-Q scores were higher for treatment completers and lower for the intention to treat sample, compared to previous studies (Fairburn et al., 2009; Byrne et al., 2011). Level of attrition was found at 40.8% and non-completion of treatment was associated with higher levels of anxiety. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed.