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Bottom-up assembly of nanomaterials using solution-processed methods is ideally suited for use in fabrication of large-area optoelectronic devices. Tailorable visible and near-infrared absorption in shaped nanostructured noble metals is strongly influenced by localized plasmon resonance effects. Obtaining sharp and selective absorption with solution-processed methods is a challenge and requires suitable control on the growth kinetics, which ultimately results in appropriate size and morphology of the final product. In this work, a photo-assisted multigenerational growth process for synthesis of silver nanotriangle ink with narrow linewidth absorbance is developed. This technique combines photochemical and seed-mediated growth approaches. The resulting ink exhibits a sharp absorption at 700 nm with full width at half maximum of ∼170 nm, verified by absorption as well as dynamic light scattering, transmission electron microscopy, and field emission scanning electron microscopy measurements. Numerical modeling using finite-difference time-domain calculations yields a close match with observed absorption and is used to examine electric field distribution and enhancement factor resonating at 720 nm. The synthesis technique is potentially useable for production of highly selective absorbers in solution phase.
The applications of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) include: acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiogenic pulmonary oedema, for immunocompromised patient, during failure to wean from ventilation. It is essential before NIV is initiated that arterial blood gas measurements be available. The patient should be established upon appropriate oxygen therapy and interpretation must be made in the context of the FiO2. Correct patient selection is essential for the success of NIV: it is a complementary not alternative therapy to IPPV. The successful instigation of NIV is very dependent upon establishing a good rapport with the patient and inspiring confidence in what will feel like a very unusual treatment. The complications of NIV include mild gastric distension, pressure effects of the mask and straps causing facial tissue damage, eye irritation, sinus pain or nasal congestion, and significant haemodynamic effects resulting from NIV that are unusual although hypotension may occur.
Precise biostratigraphic constraints on the age of the Tal Group are restricted to (1) a basal level correlative with the Anabarites trisulcatus–Protohertzina anabarica Assemblage Zone of southwest China, (2) a level near the boundary of the lower and upper parts of the Tal Group correlative with the early Tsanglangpuan Stage (Drepanuroides Zone), and (3) an interval low in the upper part of the Tal Group correlative with later in the Tsanglangpuan Stage (Palaeolenus Zone). These correlations are based on small shelly fossil and trilobite taxa. Other chronostratigraphic constraints include the marked negative δ13C isotopic excursion coincident with the transition from the Krol Group to the Tal Group. This excursion is used as a proxy for the Precambrian–Cambrian boundary in several sections worldwide and, if applied to the Lesser Himalaya, indicates that the boundary is at or just above the base of the Tal Group. The upper parts of the Tal Group may be of middle or late Cambrian age and might form proximal equivalents of sections in the Zanskar–Spiti region of the Tethyan Himalaya. Both faunal content and lithological succession are comparable to southwest China, furthering recent arguments for close geographic proximity between the Himalaya and the Yangtze block during late Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian time. Trilobites from the uppermost parts of the Sankholi Formation from the Nigali Dhar syncline are described and referred to three taxa, one of which, Drepanopyge gopeni, is a new species. They are the oldest trilobites yet described from the Himalaya.
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