To improve the diagnosis of human fascioliasis caused by Fasciola gigantica, we developed a peptide-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (peptide-based ELISA) based on the detection of specific IgG4 subclass antibody. Two identified B-cell epitopes of F. gigantica cathepsin L1 were synthesized as single synthetic peptides, acetyl-DKIDWRESGYVTELKDQGNC-carboxamide (peptide L) and acetyl-DKIDWRESGYVTEVKDQGNC-carboxamide (peptide V), and their diagnostic potential was evaluated. The sera of 25 patients infected with F. gigantica, 212 patients with other parasitic infections, 32 cholangiocarcinoma patients and 57 healthy controls were analysed. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive and negative predictive values of this assay were the same with both peptides at 100%, 99·7%, 99·7%, 96·2% and 100%, respectively. These highly sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISAs for the detection of specific IgG4 antibody could be useful for laboratory diagnosis of human fascioliasis in future large-scale surveys throughout Southeast Asia where this disease is prevalent.