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Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) is considered a dysfunctional way of dealing with problem situations.
This study aimed to investigate the problem solving capacity in adults with NSSI compared to controls.
Thirty-three patients who sought treatment for NSSI (NSSI group) were compared with 33 individuals without psychiatric disorder (control group). We also investigated Axis I disorders, executive functions and problem solving capacity.
In both groups, the majority were women (77.25%) with a mean age of 30 years, and the beginning of NSSI behavior of 16 years. The most common NSSI behaviour was skin cutting, and the most common reason given for engaging in that behaviour was “to stop negative feelings”. The most common psychiatric comorbidities were major depressive disorder (60.6%). Compared to controls, the group with NSSI showed lower results in relation to problem solving capacity (P = 0.000) and mental flexibility (P = 0.007). Deficits in problem solving capacity may be a reflection of low mental flexibility of adults with NSSI. This may be a risk factor for the beginning of NSSI and the persistence of it in adulthood.
Early identification and treatment focused on problem solving capacity during the adolescence may prevent the chronicity of NSSI.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
In this study, we isolate and analyse a new set of microsatellite loci for Cattleya walkeriana. Twenty-two primer pairs were screened for C. walkeriana (n = 32) and assessed for their transferability to Cattleya loddigesii (n = 12) and Cattleya nobilior (n = 06). All loci amplified for C. walkeriana; however, for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior, four and five primers, respectively, did not present amplification. The polymorphic loci presented between 2 and 13 alleles per locus for both C. walkeriana and C. loddigesii, with respective averages of 5.1 and 4.2. For C. nobilior, we found between two and five alleles per locus, with an average of 2.6. For C. walkeriana, observed heterozygosity varied from 0.100 to 0.966, whereas expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.097 to 0.900. The observed and expected heterozygosity for C. loddigesii and C. nobilior were also estimated. We found no significant linkage disequilibrium between any pair of loci, and evidence of null alleles at four loci (Cw16, Cw24, Cw30 and Cw31) for C. walkeriana. The combined power to exclude the first parent and combined non-exclusion probability of identity were 0.999 and 2.3 × 10−20, respectively. These new loci can be used in studies of germplasm resources, and assessments of genotypic and genetic diversity and population structure, thus improving the accuracy of such analyses and their applicability in the conservation and protection of these endangered species.
We have investigated the stability of nano-amorphous region of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST), fabricated by Electron Beam Lithography (EBL), dry etching, and ion implantation. Nano-structures, less than 100 nm in diameter and 20 nm thick, were either embedded in a crystalline environment or just isolated. We have observed nano-structure crystallization by in situ Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in the 75°C-150°C temperature range. Re-crystallization of amorphous dots embedded in a crystalline region (either in the cubic or hexagonal phase) occurs by the movement of the interface at relatively low temperature (about 90°C). Instead, in the isolated structures the transition occurs at about 145°C by nucleation and growth. These results might be of relevance for the data retention of sub-50nm devices. Indeed, the more stable amorphous phase in self-standing regions indicates the better retention properties of isolated cells with respect to the traditional mushroom cell configuration.
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