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Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in substance-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing test with apomorphine has been proposed as a marker of the functional status of the dopaminergic system and therefore a predictor of suffering an addiction or predisposition to relapse.
Studying the safety and efficacy of apomorphine test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependent, diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR.
We performed the test of apomorphine at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11/12) of a detoxification program in 33 patients (29 men). The majority of patients relapsed after 22 weeks of follow up (87% relapse). The average yawns in the sample were 10.9 ± 9.3 in the initial test (Apo 1) and 10.2 ± 10.2 in the final test (Apo 2). The 42% of patients relapsed early (before 4 weeks) and 45% late (afther 4 weeks). 58% of the sample (N = 19), which did not fall belatedly filled an average of 8.0 yawns in Apo1 and 8.1 on Apo2 and 42% who did so early (N = 14), 14,8 in Apo1 and 14.6 in Apo2. Therefore there are an increased number of yawns in patients with early relapse. No important side effects were reported.
Patients with early relapse have a higher number of yawns that those falling late or abstainers The apomorphine test is a safe test and it is a readily applicable tool in clinical practice and may be a biological marker of risk.
Describe the prevalence and characteristics of psychotic symptoms in the context of cocaine injection use in a harm reduction program.
To find associations between intravenous cocaine use and other drug use in cocaine dependent patients suffering from cocaine induced psychosis (CIP). Cannabis was found to be a risk factor for developing CIP in non-intravenous cocaine dependence.
During a period of 6 months professionals from our Outpatient Drug Clinic completed a confidential questionnaire to describe the adverse clinical effects following cocaine injection. It included age, gender, ethnic group, daily consumption rate and other drugs used in the last 30 days.
Survey was achieved with a sample of 75 Caucasians patients, 69 men and 6 women with an average age of 32 years old. Seventeen percent (13/75) had psychotic symptoms, of which 84% (11/13) had hallucinations (visuals 4/11, auditive 7/11 and kinaesthetic 2/11), 15% (2/13) illusions.
Eighteen percent (14/75) had stereotypy movements and 3% (2/75) had aggressive behaviour. Drugs used by CIP patients, the previous 30 days were: 61% (8/13) cannabis, 31% (4/13) opiates and 15% (2/13) alcohol.
Intravenous cocaine use produced acute psychotic symptoms in 17% of our patients, of which 61% used cannabis. Despite the ethical and practical implications of this type of study, it is necessary to do more observational studies with bigger surveys to conclude these results with statistically significance.
Chronic consumption of cocaine can induce transient psychotic symptoms, expressed as paranoia or hallucinations. This is typically prevented by abstinence. The term Cocaine-Induced Psychosis (CIP) has been used to describe this syndrome. Impulsivity has been hypothesised are likked with CIP.
This study examined the relationship between CIP and substance consumption variables and impulsivity disorders including ADHD (Axis I) and Borderline personality disorders (BPD) (Axis II), and attempted to evaluated their link as a risk factors for CIP.
Trained psychiatrists systematically conducted a structured interview in which the conclusions from the psychotic symptoms were summarized. We used the CADDID to evaluate Adult ADHD, SCID II for axis II disorders, and the Barrat Impulsivity Scale (BIS-11).
We evaluated 163 (34,16 yo, 85,80% men) cocaine-dependent patients, according to DSM-IV criteria.
We found statistically significant association between CIP and Early age at onset of cocaine addiction (p = 0,04), cocaine use per day 6 months before starting treatment (p = 0,03), Barrat cognitive impulsivity subscale (p < 0,004), and Adult ADHD (p < 0,041). No relationship between BPD and CIP was found.
We confirm previous findings that Impulsivity disorders as ADHD or high impulsivity trails are liked to CIP. Coinciding with our previous findings, relationship between early age of onset cocaine dependence or high amounts of cocaine use and CIP was found. CIP are related with impulsivity disorders spectrum.
Sleep disturbances have been described in drugdependent patients and mainly, in alcoholics. Few studies describe the hypnotic treatment used in this setting.
Describe the prevalence of insomnia in drugdependent inpatients. Describe the hypnotic treatment, according to the substance abuse and the psychiatric comorbidity.
Material and methods
Descriptive study performed in drugdependent inpatients between June, 2008 and August, 2011. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders was obtained in order to ensure the clinical diagnosis. Hypnotic treatment was dispensed to those patients who complain of insomnia according to the Psychiatric prescription. Demographic data, type of abuse drug and the hypnotic dispensed was obtained.
298 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria (71.8% men, 39.22 ± 10.13 years). The principal substances of consumption were stimulants(36.2%), followed by alcohol(34.9%), heroine(14.4%), cannabis(9.4%) and benzodiazepines(5%). 60.4% of the patients complained of insomnia during the hospital admission. The most used drugs for insomnia were mirtazapine(19.8%), trazodone(14.8%), quetiapine(14.1%), clotiapine(7.4%) and olanzapine(4.4%). Alcohol, cocaine and benzodiazepines addicted patients were treated with antidepressants as mirtazapine(17.3%, 18.5% and 40% respectively); heroin addicts were treated with antipsychotic drugs as quetiapine(27.9%). Cannabis addicts took antidepressant and antipsychotic (mirtazapine (21.4%) and olanzapine(21.4%))
61.7% of the patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria of dual diagnosis. Patients with psychotic disorder used quetiapine(17.4%); those with depressive and bipolar disorder were treated with trazodone(30.2% and 33.3% respectively), those who complain of anxious disorder and personality disorder took mirtazapine(50% and 17.4% respectively).
Sleep disturbances are frequent in drugdependent inpatients. Mirtazapine was the most frequently used drug to treat insomnia.
The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of caffeine with or without biperiden in the treatment of cocaine dependent patients.
A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial has been carried out in an inpatient regime during up to 13 days. Eligible patients were randomized to caffeine plus biperiden or caffeine plus biperiden placebo or caffeine placebo plus biperiden placebo.
Eighty five treatment-seeking patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were stabilized with a mean caffeine dose up to 15 mg/Kg. Results show that all three treatments are well tolerated and a clear reduction in cocaine withdrawal and craving was observed. Nevertheless, no statistically significant differences were found between groups in any outcome.
This study shows that inpatient cocaine detoxification with high caffeine doses, with or without biperiden, is well tolerated and allows further research on the usefulness of caffeine in the treatment of cocaine withdrawal and craving. Nevertheless, the selection of an inpatient hospital regime hampered the demonstration of the superiority of caffeine treatment versus placebo.
Until now, no reliable biological markers of risk and relapse in cocaine-dependent patients have been identified. The yawn-inducing Apomorphine test has been proposed as a marker for predicting relapse during cocaine withdrawal.
Studying the Apomorphine complete Test as a predictor of relapse in intranasal cocaine dependet-patients during abstinence.
39 (35 men) cocaine addicts were recruited and included in an addiction program involving 2 weeks in-patient setting and a 23 follow-up weeks. Dependence was diagnosed according to DSM-IV-TR criteria and other axis I comorbid main diagnosis were excluded.
We performed the Apomorphine complete Test (including an Apomorphine Test plus a Placebo Test) at the beginning (day 1) and end (day 11 or 12) of a detoxification program. Patient received 0′005 mg/kg of apomorphine and 0′005 mg/kg of placebo subcutaneously each test.
The patients who relapse prematurely (before 4 weeks), yawn more 11′42 (0–31) in the Apomorphine complete Test realized the first day of the detoxification compared with patients that relapse no prematurely (after 4 weeks of follow-up), 6′83 (0–20), Z -2′14 p < 0′03. A model can establish, with a point of court of 7 yawns in the first Apomorphine complete Test that has a sensibility of 61 ′ 9% and a specificity of 70 ′ 6%.
There an increased number of yawns in relapse-patients The Apomorphine complete Test could be proposed as a biological marker of early relapse.
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