Nicotine is the main psychoactive substance present in cigarette smoke that is transferred to the baby by breast milk. In rats, maternal nicotine exposure during breastfeeding induces obesogenesis and hormone dysfunctions in adult male offspring. As glucocorticoid (GC), insulin, and vitamin D change both adipogenesis and lipogenesis processes, we assessed parameters related to metabolism and action of these hormones in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues (VAT and SAT) of adult male and female rats in a model of neonatal nicotine exposure. At postnatal (PN) day 2, dams were kept with six pups (three per sex) and divided into nicotine and control groups for implantation of osmotic minipumps that released 6 mg/kg nicotine or saline, respectively. At PN180, fat mass, hormone levels, and protein contents of biomarkers of the GC activation and receptor (11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptor alpha), insulin signaling pathway [insulin receptor beta (IRβ), phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), phosphorylated serine/threonine kinase (pAKT), serine/threonine kinase, glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4)], and vitamin D activation and receptor (1α-hydroxylase and vitamin D receptor) were evaluated. While nicotine-exposed males showed increased fat mass, hypercorticosteronemia, hyperinsulinemia, and higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D, these alterations were not observed in nicotine-exposed females. Nicotine-exposed males only showed lower IRS1 in VAT, while the females had hyperglycemia, higher pAKT in VAT, while lower IRβ, IRS1, and GLUT4 in SAT. Parameters related to metabolism and action of GC and vitamin D were unaltered in both sexes. We evidence that exposure exclusively to nicotine during breastfeeding affects the hormone status and fat depots of the adult progeny in a sex-dependent manner.