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A comparative spatial history using GIS, this article examines the similar and differing effects of railway expansion on the growth of postal communications in Great Britain and France from 1830 to the eve of the Great War. It argues that the modern Postal Age in Great Britain and France began in the 1830s. In Britain in 1839, the Parliament obligated private railway companies to convey the Royal Mail throughout the kingdom at reasonable rates. Thereafter, the expansion of postal services and railway networks went hand in hand. Over the years, thousands of new post offices were established and were closer to rail stations than before. As the years wore on the geography of postal communication expanded greatly and by 1914 the majority of rural districts became part of the system of regular, daily mail. In France, a country four or five times larger than England and Wales with a relatively vast rural population, the task of modernizing postal service was a greater challenge. The inauguration of a “rural service” in 1829 employed some 5,000 men as postal carriers to deliver and collect mail throughout the countryside. Thereafter, their numbers grew as new post offices were established to serve villages and small towns with mail deliveries every other day. In the 1880s, under the Third Republic, the state greatly expanded the postal service, deeming it a national mission. It was then that the growing rail network came to shape the national geography of postal service. Hence, at the turn of the century the patterns British and French postal expansions converged.
The occurrence of nonlocal objects, raw materials, and ideas in the southwestern United States (U.S. SW) has long been recognized as evidence of interaction between prehispanic peoples of this region and those of greater Mesoamerica. Although many archaeologists have analyzed the directionality and potential means by which these objects and concepts moved across the landscape, few have assessed the degree to which Mesoamerican practices and traditional assemblages remained intact as the artifacts and ideas moved farther from their places of origin. The current study analyzes the distribution and deposition of blue-green stone mosaics, a craft technology that was well established in Mesoamerica by the Late Preclassic period (300 BC–AD 250) and spread to the U.S. SW by the start of the Hohokam Pioneer period (AD 475). We assess the spatial distribution, contextual deposition, and morphology of mosaics at sites within Hohokam Canal System 2, located in the Phoenix Basin of Arizona. We use these data to infer mosaics’ social value and function within Hohokam social structure. Analyses suggest that, although the technology of mosaic making may have originated in Mesoamerica, the contexts and ways in which mosaics were used in the Hohokam regional system were decidedly Hohokam.
Providing care for people with behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia is stressful as these individuals are commonly labelled as aggressive or resistant to care. Few studies have evaluated the impact of providing support to professional caregivers working in long-term care. Our mixed methods pilot study evaluated the impact of the innovative Affect Education Model among health care providers from two Toronto nursing homes.
The two-person centred Affect Educational Model through the use of seven questions that encourage self-reflection teaches that problematic behaviours are co-constructed between individuals with BPSD and caregivers. Study procedures included recruiting nursing staff and personal support workers and teaching them the model in five weekly 30-minute group sessions. Qualitative measures in the form of focus groups were obtained. Quantitative measures were obtained through the use of five questionnaires.
Qualitative findings from focus groups identified four themes: facilitators and barriers perceived in current care delivery, the impact of the model experience on staff care delivery, reflections on being taught the model, and future model implementation. Quantitative results were also collected and discussed.
The use of both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment of individuals with BPSD may be greatly enhanced by an interpersonal two-person Affect Education Model that emphasizes the importance of calming down and self-reflection. Future directions include expanding the model to family caregivers through the use of multimedia resources.
Responsive behaviours in dementia are associated with poor outcomes for the person with dementia (PWD) and caregiver burnout. Family caregivers need a variety of tools to manage responsive behaviours. The Baycrest Quick-Response Caregiver Tool was developed to provide caregivers with a tool that can be used in real time. In this study, the feasibility, impact, and effectiveness of this new tool were studied in family caregivers and health care providers (HCP) using quantitative and qualitative measures.
Family caregivers were recruited and were asked to complete a pre-survey before being sent the link to the educational tool. One month after the telephone survey, caregivers were sent an online post-survey to gather their feedback on the tool and the impact of the tool on caregiver well -being. Healthcare providers were also recruited and reviewed the tool through an online feedback survey. The feasibility, impact, and effectiveness of the tool were assessed using quantitative and qualitative measures.
Caregivers had a moderate degree of and reported a high level of competence - these scores were maintained throughout the study. Caregivers reported that tool positively impacted their compassion towards the person with dementia (PWD), and that their interactions with improved. 100% of HCP who completed the feedback survey would recommend the tool to other HCP and to caregivers of PWD. The caregivers and HCP provided specific suggestions for improvement.
The Baycrest Quick-Response Caregiver Tool was found to be feasible and helpful. It provides caregivers and HCP with an additional approach for responsive behaviours.
Hydrocarbon contamination plagues high-resolution and analytical electron microscopy by depositing carbonaceous layers onto surfaces during electron irradiation, which can render carefully prepared specimens useless. Increased specimen thickness degrades resolution with beam broadening alongside loss of contrast. The large inelastic cross-section of carbon hampers accurate atomic species detection. Oxygen and water molecules pose problems of lattice damage by chemically etching the specimen during imaging. These constraints on high-resolution and spectroscopic imaging demand clean, high-vacuum microscopes with dry pumps. Here, we present an open-hardware design of a high-vacuum manifold for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) holders to mitigate hydrocarbon and residual species exposure. We quantitatively show that TEM holders are inherently dirty and introduce a range of unwanted chemical species. Overnight storage in our manifold reduces contaminants by one to two orders of magnitude and promotes two to four times faster vacuum recovery. A built-in bakeout system further reduces contaminants partial pressure to below 10−10 hPa (Torr) (approximately four orders of magnitude down from ambient storage) and alleviates monolayer adsorption during a typical TEM experiment. We determine that bakeout of TEM holder with specimen held therein is the optimal cleaning method. Our high-vacuum manifold design is published with open-source blueprints, parts, and cost list.