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Conservation tillage adoption continues to be threatened by glyphosate and acetolactate synthase–resistant Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weeds. Field experiments were conducted from autumn 2010 through crop harvest in 2013 at two locations in Alabama to evaluate the effect of integrated management practices on weed control and seed cotton yield in glyphosate-resistant cotton. The effects of a cereal rye cover crop using high- or low-biomass residue, followed by wide or narrow within-row strip tillage and three PRE herbicide regimens were evaluated. The three PRE regimens were (1) pendimethalin at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 plus fomesafen at 0.28 kg ai ha−1 applied broadcast, (2) pendimethalin plus fomesafen applied banded on the row, or (3) no PRE. Each PRE treatment was followed by (fb) glyphosate (1.12 kg ae ha−1) applied POST fb layby applications of diuron (1.12 kg ai ha−1) plus monosodium methanearsonate (2.24 kg ai ha−1). Low-residue plots ranged in biomass from 85 to 464 kg ha−1, and high-biomass residue plots ranged from 3,119 to 6,929 kg ha−1. In most comparisons, surface disturbance width, residue amount, and soil-applied herbicide placement did not influence within-row weed control; however, broadcast PRE resulted in increased carpetweed, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, tall morning-glory, and yellow nutsedge weed control in row middles compared with plots receiving banded PRE. In addition, high-residue plots had increased carpetweed, common purslane, large crabgrass, Palmer amaranth, sicklepod, and tall morning-glory weed control between rows. Use of banded PRE herbicides resulted in equivalent yield and revenue in four of six comparisons compared with those with broadcast PRE herbicide application; however, this would likely result in many between-row weed escapes. Thus, conservation tillage cotton would benefit from broadcast soil-applied herbicide applications regardless of residue amount and tillage width when infested with Palmer amaranth and other troublesome weed species.
Six on-farm studies determined the effects of a rolled rye cover crop, herbicide program, and planting technique on cotton stand, weed control, and cotton yield in Georgia. Treatments included: (1) rye drilled broadcast with 19-cm row spacing and a broadcast-herbicide program (2) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row and a broadcast-herbicide program (3) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row with PPI and PRE herbicides banded in the cotton planting row, and (4) no cover crop (i.e., weedy cover) with broadcast herbicides. At two locations, cotton stand was lowest with rye drilled broadcast; at these sites the rye-free zone maximized stand equal to the no-cover system. At a third location, cover crop systems resulted in greater stand, due to enhanced soil moisture preservation compared with the no-cover system. Treatments did not influence cotton stand at the other three locations and did not differ in the control of weeds other than Palmer amaranth at any location. Treatments controlled Palmer amaranth equally at three locations; however, differences were observed at the three locations having the greatest glyphosate-resistant plant densities. For these locations, when broadcasting herbicides, Palmer amaranth populations were reduced 82% to 86% in the broadcast rye and rye-free zone systems compared with the no-cover system at harvest. The system with banded herbicides was nearly 21 times less effective than the similar system broadcasting herbicides. At these locations, yields in the rye broadcast and rye-free zone systems with broadcast herbicides were increased 9% to 16% compared with systems with no cover or a rye-free zone with PPI and PRE herbicides banded. A rolled rye cover crop can lessen weed emergence and selection pressure while improving weed control and cotton yield, but herbicides should be broadcast in fields heavily infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.
Recent commercialization of auxin herbicide–based weed control systems has led to increased off-target exposure of susceptible cotton cultivars to auxin herbicides. Off-target deposition of dilute concentrations of auxin herbicides can occur on cotton at any stage of growth. Field experiments were conducted at two locations in Mississippi from 2014 to 2016 to assess the response of cotton at various growth stages after exposure to a sublethal 2,4-D concentration of 8.3 g ae ha−1. Herbicide applications occurred weekly from 0 to 14 weeks after emergence (WAE). Cotton exposure to 2,4-D at 2 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 64% visible injury, whereas 2,4-D exposure 5 to 6 WAE resulted in machine-harvested yield reductions of 18% to 21%. Cotton maturity was delayed after exposure 2 to 10 WAE, and height was increased from exposure 6 to 9 WAE due to decreased fruit set after exposure. Total hand-harvested yield was reduced from 2,4-D exposure 3, 5 to 8, and 13 WAE. Growth stage at time of exposure influenced the distribution of yield by node and position. Yield on lower and inner fruiting sites generally decreased from exposure, and yield partitioned to vegetative or aborted positions and upper fruiting sites increased. Reductions in gin turnout, micronaire, fiber length, fiber-length uniformity, and fiber elongation were observed after exposure at certain growth stages, but the overall effects on fiber properties were small. These results indicate that cotton is most sensitive to low concentrations of 2,4-D during late vegetative and squaring growth stages.
The introduction of auxin herbicide weed control systems has led to increased occurrence of crop injury in susceptible soybeans and cotton. Off-target exposure to sublethal concentrations of dicamba can occur at varying growth stages, which may affect crop response. Field experiments were conducted in Mississippi in 2014, 2015, and 2016 to characterize cotton response to a sublethal concentration of dicamba equivalent to 1/16X the labeled rate. Weekly applications of dicamba at 35 g ae ha−1 were made to separate sets of replicated plots immediately following planting until 14 wk after emergence (WAE). Exposure to dicamba from 1 to 9 WAE resulted in up to 32% visible injury, and exposure from 7 to 10 WAE delayed crop maturity. Exposure from 8 to 10 and 13 WAE led to increased cotton height, while an 18% reduction in machine-harvested yield resulted from exposure at 6 WAE. Cotton exposure at 3 to 9 WAE reduced the seed cotton weight partitioned to position 1 fruiting sites, while exposure at 3 to 6 WAE also reduced yield in position 2 fruiting sites. Exposure at 2, 3, and 5 to 7 WAE increased the percent of yield partitioned to vegetative branches. An increase in percent of yield partitioned to plants with aborted terminals occurred following exposure from 3 to 7 WAE and corresponded with reciprocal decreases in yield partitioned to positional fruiting sites. Minimal effects were observed on fiber quality, except for decreases in fiber length uniformity resulting from exposure at 9 and 10 WAE.
The Neotoma Paleoecology Database is a community-curated data resource that supports interdisciplinary global change research by enabling broad-scale studies of taxon and community diversity, distributions, and dynamics during the large environmental changes of the past. By consolidating many kinds of data into a common repository, Neotoma lowers costs of paleodata management, makes paleoecological data openly available, and offers a high-quality, curated resource. Neotoma’s distributed scientific governance model is flexible and scalable, with many open pathways for participation by new members, data contributors, stewards, and research communities. The Neotoma data model supports, or can be extended to support, any kind of paleoecological or paleoenvironmental data from sedimentary archives. Data additions to Neotoma are growing and now include >3.8 million observations, >17,000 datasets, and >9200 sites. Dataset types currently include fossil pollen, vertebrates, diatoms, ostracodes, macroinvertebrates, plant macrofossils, insects, testate amoebae, geochronological data, and the recently added organic biomarkers, stable isotopes, and specimen-level data. Multiple avenues exist to obtain Neotoma data, including the Explorer map-based interface, an application programming interface, the neotoma R package, and digital object identifiers. As the volume and variety of scientific data grow, community-curated data resources such as Neotoma have become foundational infrastructure for big data science.
Greenhouse and field experiments, at two locations in Georgia, evaluated the tolerance of several soft red winter wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) to postemergence applications of metribuzin [4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthio)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one]. In the greenhouse, none of the cultivars growing in pots tolerated a 0.6 kg ai/ha treatment of metribuzin applied at the two-to three-tiller, six- to nine-tiller, or early-stem elongation growth stages. In nutrient culture, ‘McNair 1003’ was more tolerant to a 0.15 μg/ml concentration of metribuzin than other cultivars. Significant injury and yield reductions of wheat cultivars treated in the field with 0.6 and 1.1 kg/ha of metribuzin occurred. Differences between the cultivars were not uniform over all experiments. Increased injury was accompanied by higher rainfall and low temperatures subsequent to application. None of the wheat cultivars evaluated in the field experiments was injured by the 0.3 kg/ha rate of metribuzin. Acceptable selective weed control was obtained with this rate, indicating that metribuzin could be used in these soft red winter wheat cultivars.
Horsenettle is a deep-rooted perennial weed that cannot be easily controlled by mechanical means or by a single chemical application. A study was conducted at two sites for two consecutive years to identify biological factors that might limit its growth. Insects, nematodes, and plant pathogens were collected from horsenettle growing in bermudagrass pastures. The insects most commonly found included the Colorado potato beetle and the eggplant flea beetle. An unidentified lepidopteron, family Gelechiidae, was found at very low frequency as pupae in hollow leaf chambers constructed at the apices of flowering meristems. Infested apices bore no fruit. Seven genera of nematodes were found in the soil at both sites, but only very low numbers of lesion nematodes were recovered from horsenettle roots, and these had caused little damage. Root rot was observed under wet soil conditions on plants damaged by trampling. A downy mildew was prevalent at both sites in both years in October.
Horsenettle was described quantitatively in two grazed bermudagrass pastures for two years. Six times from April through October, plants were counted, phenologically documented, and tops were harvested for estimation of above-ground phytomass. Roots were sampled for carbohydrate, N fraction, and macronutrient analyses. Top growth, flowering, fruiting, and chemical composition were similar between sites within years, but differed between years. Starch and total non-structural carbohydrates in roots increased following reproductive periods both years. Root concentrations of protein and non-protein N increased and concentrations of P decreased in August and September in one year only. Analysis of the relationship between seasonal trends in carbohydrate fluctuation and pasture management practices suggests that systemic herbicide application in mid-summer may lead to more effective control than application in spring.
Florida beggarweed [Desmodium tortuosum (Sw.) DC] reduced peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. ‘Florunner′) yields more than sicklepod (Cassia obtusifolia L.) when the crop and weeds were allowed to compete for the full season. Regression analyses within years indicated peanut yield reductions of 15.8 to 30.2 kg/ha for each Florida beggarweed per 10 m2 vs. 6.1 to 22.3 kg/ha for each sicklepod per 10 m2. Each kilogram fresh weight per hectare of Florida beggarweed reduced peanut yields 0.15 to 0.74 kg/ha. Reductions in peanut yields ranged from 0.08 to 0.23 kg/ha for each kilogram fresh weight per hectare of sicklepod. Peanut yield reductions correlated more closely with the weights of the weeds than with their populations.
Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the integration of cover crops and POST herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in cotton. The winter-annual grasses accumulated the greatest amount of biomass and provided the most Palmer amaranth control. The estimates for the logistic regression would indicate that 1540 kg ha−1 would delay Palmer amaranth emerging and growing to 10 cm by an estimated 16.5 days. The Palmer amaranth that emerged in the cereal rye and wheat cover crop treatments took a longer time to reach 10 cm compared to the hairy vetch and crimson clover treatments. POST herbicides were needed for adequate control of Palmer amaranth. The glufosinate-based weed control system provided greater control (75% vs 31%) of Palmer amaranth than did the glyphosate system. These results indicate that a POST only herbicide weed management system did not provide sufficient control of Palmer amaranth, even when used in conjunction with cover crops that produced a moderate level of biomass. Therefore, future recommendations for GR Palmer amaranth control will include integrating cover crops with PRE herbicides, overlaying residual herbicides in-season, timely POST herbicide applications, and hand weeding in order to achieve season-long control of this pest.
Herbicides are the foundation of weed control in commercial crop-production systems. However, herbicide-resistant (HR) weed populations are evolving rapidly as a natural response to selection pressure imposed by modern agricultural management activities. Mitigating the evolution of herbicide resistance depends on reducing selection through diversification of weed control techniques, minimizing the spread of resistance genes and genotypes via pollen or propagule dispersal, and eliminating additions of weed seed to the soil seedbank. Effective deployment of such a multifaceted approach will require shifting from the current concept of basing weed management on single-year economic thresholds.
Development of herbicide-resistant crops has resulted in significant changes to agronomic practices, one of which is the adoption of effective, simple, low-risk, crop-production systems with less dependency on tillage and lower energy requirements. Overall, the changes have had a positive environmental effect by reducing soil erosion, the fuel use for tillage, and the number of herbicides with groundwater advisories as well as a slight reduction in the overall environmental impact quotient of herbicide use. However, herbicides exert a high selection pressure on weed populations, and density and diversity of weed communities change over time in response to herbicides and other control practices imposed on them. Repeated and intensive use of herbicides with the same mechanisms of action (MOA; the mechanism in the plant that the herbicide detrimentally affects so that the plant succumbs to the herbicide; e.g., inhibition of an enzyme that is vital to plant growth or the inability of a plant to metabolize the herbicide before it has done damage) can rapidly select for shifts to tolerant, difficult-to-control weeds and the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds, especially in the absence of the concurrent use of herbicides with different mechanisms of action or the use of mechanical or cultural practices or both.
Changes in the weed flora of cropping systems reflect the impacts of factors that create safe sites for weed establishment and facilitate the influx and losses to and from the soil seedbank. This analysis of the annual surveys of the Southern Weed Science Society documents changes in the weed flora of the 14 contiguous southern states since the advent of transgenic, herbicide-resistant crops. In 1994 and 2009, the top five weeds in corn were morningglories, Texas millet, broadleaf signalgrass, johnsongrass, and sicklepod; in this same period Palmer amaranth, smartweeds, and goosegrass had the greatest increases in importance in corn. In cotton, morningglories and nutsedges were among the top five most troublesome weeds in 1995 and 2009. Palmer amaranth, pigweeds, and Florida pusley were also among the five most troublesome species in 2009; the weeds with the largest increases in importance in cotton were common ragweed and two species with tolerance to glyphosate, Benghal dayflower and Florida pusley. In soybean, morningglories, nutsedges, and sicklepod were among the top five weed species in 1995 and 2009. Two species with glyphosate resistance, Palmer amaranth and horseweed, were the second and fourth most troublesome weeds of soybean in 2009. In wheat, the top four weeds in 2008 were the same as those in 1994 and included Italian ryegrass, wild garlic, wild radish, and henbit. Crop production in the southern region is a mosaic of various crop rotations, soil types, and types of tillage. During the interval between the surveys, the predominant change in weed management practices in the region and the nation was the onset and rapid dominance of the use of glyphosate in herbicide-resistant cultivars of corn, cotton, and soybean. Because of the correspondence between the effects of glyphosate on the respective weed species and the observed changes in the weed flora of the crops, it is likely the very broad use of glyphosate was a key component shaping the changes in weed flora. Only eight of the top 15 most troublesome weeds of cotton and soybean, the crops with the greatest use of glyphosate, were the same in 1995 and 2009. In contrast, in corn and wheat where adoption of glyphosate-resistant cultivars lags or is absent, 12 of the 15 most troublesome weeds were the same in 1994 and 2008. These findings show on a regional scale that weeds adapt to recurrent selection from herbicides, currently the predominant weed management tool. Future research should seek methods to hinder the rapid spread of herbicide-tolerant and evolution of herbicide-resistant weed species. As new tools are developed, research should focus on ways to preserve the efficacy of those tools through improved stewardship.
The culture of marine invertebrates, collectively termed mariculture, has received much attention as a new and potentially lucrative industry. Much research has been devoted to molluscs (oysters, clams, and mussels) and crustaceans (shrimp, crawfish, crabs, and lobsters) (Bardach, Ryther, and McLarney). In particular, effort has been directed to the development of a technologically and commercially feasible penaeid shrimp mariculture scheme (Broom; Mock and Murphy; Neal and Latapie; Parker and Conte; Wheeler). Results of extensive research efforts show promise that the technological feasibility of penaeid shrimp farming in Gulf coastal regions of the United States is near to being a reality.
Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF) is used to rank transgenic cotton technology groups and place an upper and lower bound on their value. Yield and production data from replicated plot experiments are used to build cumulative distribution functions of returns for nontransgenic, Roundup Ready, Bollgard, and stacked gene cotton cultivars. Analysis of Arkansas data indicated that the stacked gene and Roundup Ready technologies would be preferred by a large number of risk neutral and risk averse producers as long as the costs of the technology and seed are below the lower bounds calculated in this manuscript.
Waste management and disposal decisions at the Hanford Site, Washington, depend in part on an understanding of the risks and impacts associated with alternate disposal and remedial actions. A proof-of-principle site-wide assessment of the risks and impacts associated with all wastes that will remain at the Hanford Site following cleanup has been performed for the first time. It simulates contaminant release, migration, and fate from the initiation of site operations in 1944 forward, and, thus, illustrates historical and near-term influences on long-term risk and impact.
A stochastic simulation tool capable of addressing 1000 waste discharge and disposal sites and 10 contaminants for a period of 1000 years has been created and applied. Human health and ecological risks as well as impacts to the regional economy and local cultures are estimated. The methodology developed is known as the System Assessment Capability (SAC). It is currently in a Revision 0 state corresponding to a proof-of-principle demonstration.
An initial assessment based on the planning baseline of the U.S. Department of Energy (Richland Operations office and office of River Protection) has been undertaken. Preliminary results of the assessment indicate variability in predictions is most influenced by uncertainty in:
- geochemical adsorption (i.e., distribution coefficients, Kd) for contaminant release, vadose zone, and groundwater models; especially for uranium and iodine which are somewhat but not greatly adsorbed,
- solid waste burial ground inventories of iodine-129, and
- liquid discharge site inventories of technetium-99.
It is apparent that variables governing change in performance are a function of space and time. Initially, these results point to the need for related models and data to be examined, and, if necessary, augmented through future laboratory and field studies to better quantify or reduce uncertainty.