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This paper (1) reviews the history of sealing and whaling in the Southern Ocean to illustrate how market demands combined with no or ineffective regulation of catches led to the overexploitation and near extinction of southern fur seals, southern elephant seals and all but one of the Southern Ocean populations of large whales; (2) indicates how the overexploitation and depletion of krill-eating whales led to the Krill Surplus Hypothesis, and the development of the Antarctic krill fishery and the Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (CCAMLR); (3) points out how misinterpretation of the reference to ‘rational use’ in CCAMLR Article II(2), combined with consensus decision-making and the potential growth of markets for Antarctic krill, could lead to ineffective regulation of the krill fishery and adverse effects on the krill resource, on recovery of depleted populations of krill-dependent whales, and on other ecologically related species and populations; and (4) identifies reasonable actions that could be taken cooperatively by the International Whaling Commission and the CCAMLR Commission to minimise the risk that the krill fishery will prevent or impede recovery of depleted populations of krill-dependent whales.
Advanced maternal and paternal age were investigated as putative risk factors for AD in 198 clinically diagnosed Alzheimer patients and in 198 randomly selected healthy controls. No significant differences in average age of fathers and of mothers at birth of the subject were observed. The risk of AD was not significantly different across categories of maternal and paternal age. The association with parental age was not different for sporadic and familial AD. These findings do not support the view of a maternal or paternal age effect on AD.
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