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In 1960 Hans-Georg Gadamer, then a sixty-year-old German philosophy professor at Heidelberg, published Truth and Method ( Wahrheit und Methode). Although he had authored many essays, articles, and reviews, to this point Gadamer had published only one other book, his habilitation on Plato in 1931: Plato’s Dialectical Ethics. As a title for this work on a theory of interpretation, he first proposed to his publisher, Mohr Siebeck, “Philosophical Hermeneutics.” The publisher responded that “hermeneutics” was too obscure a term. Gadamer then proposed “Truth and Method” for a work that found, over time, great resonance and made “hermeneutics” and Gadamer’s name commonplace in intellectual circles worldwide. Truth and Method has been translated into many languages, including Chinese and Japanese. It found and still finds a receptive readership, in part, because, as the title suggests, it addresses large and central philosophical issues in an attempt to find a way between or beyond objectivism and relativism, and scientism and irrationalism. He accomplishes this by developing an account of what he takes to be the universal hermeneutic experience of understanding. Understanding, for Gadamer, is itself always a matter of interpretation. Understanding is also always a matter of language.
This chapter provides a biography of Gadamer and includes an overview of the philosophical work that Gadamer produced. It provides an account of his youth and education, his early career in Nazi Germany, and his career after World War II. He was named Rektor of Leipzig University in East Germany but gave up the position and came to West Germany, first to Frankfurt and then to Heidelberg. In 1960 he published Truth and Method, which slowly became recognized world-wide. He retired in 1968 and was very productive throughout his old age.
This chapter explores the historical relationship between Heidegger and Gadamer. It points out several surprises and disappointments that Gadamer experienced with Heidegger. More importantly, the chapter considers the phenomenological character of Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics. Gadamer rejects many of the basic characteristics of Husserl’s phenomenology, but he is also indebted deeply to other aspects of Husserl’s phenomenology. These aspects he also shares with Heidegger–the concepts of horizon and lifeworld, the account of temporality, and the rejection of a representational epistemology. The chapter points out the distinctiveness of Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics in relation to Heidegger’s. Gadamer’s hermeneutics is more dialogical, embraces the antinomy of beginnings, and embraces Plato and Aristotle.
Hans-Georg Gadamer (1900–2002) is widely recognized as the leading exponent of philosophical hermeneutics. The essays in this volume examine Gadamer's biography, the core of hermeneutical theory, and the significance of his work for ethics, aesthetics, the social sciences, and theology. There is full consideration of Gadamer's appropriation of Hegel, Heidegger and the Greeks, as well as his relation to modernity, critical theory and poststructuralism. This revised edition includes several new chapters on aspects of Gadamer's work, as well as updated chapters from the first edition and the most comprehensive bibliography of works by and about Gadamer available in the English language.
Ischemic cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Canada. In ST elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), time to reperfusion is a key determinant in reducing morbidity and mortality with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) being the preferred reperfusion strategy. Where PCI is available, delays to definitive care include times to electrocardiogram (ECG) diagnosis and cardiovascular laboratory access. In 2004, the Cardiac Care Network of Ontario recommended implementation of an emergency department (ED) protocol to reduce reperfusion time by transporting patients with STEMI directly to the nearest catheterization laboratory. The model was implemented in Frontenac County in April 2005. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a protocol for rapid access to PCI in reducing door-to-balloon times in STEMI.
Two 1-year periods before and after implementation of a rapid access to PCI protocol (ending March 2005 and June 2006, respectively) were studied. Administrative databases were used to identify all subjects with STEMI who were transported by regional emergency medical services (EMS) and received emergent PCI. The primary outcome measure was time from ED arrival to first balloon inflation (door-to-balloon time). Times are presented as medians and interquartile ranges (IQRs). Statistical comparisons were made using the Mann–Whitney U test and presented graphically with Kaplan–Meier curves.
Patients transported under the rapid access protocol (n = 39) were compared with historical controls (n = 42). Median door-to-balloon time was reduced from 87 minutes (IQR 67–108) preprotocol to 62 minutes (IQR 40–80) postprotocol (p < 0.001).
In our region, implementation of an EMS protocol for rapid access to PCI significantly reduced time to reperfusion for patients with STEMI.
One common view of the history of twentieth-century Continental philosophy is as follows. At the beginning of the century, Edmund Husserl, disturbed by what he saw as the increasing relativism and historicism of Western culture, introduced the phenomenological method as a way to ensure that philosophy would arrive at final, incontrovertible truths. Phenomenology means primarily description - description of the things presented in our experience and description of our experience of them. The phenomenological movement was heralded by Husserl's cry, “Back to the things themselves!” Because phenomenology “brackets,” or suspends belief in, all metaphysical constructs in order to focus solely on what shows up as it presents itself in our experience, its findings are supposed to be apodictic, beyond all possible doubt.
According to the standard story, the early Heidegger came along and raised questions about the viability of Husserlian phenomenology by taking an “interpretive” turn. What is most important about Heidegger's hermeneutic ontology, so the story goes, is his recognition of the significance of the finitude, worldliness, and historicity of our human predicament - the recognition that our access to things is always colored and preshaped by the sense of things circulating in our historical culture.
Gadamer's life and work is closely connected with and indebted to the life and work of Martin Heidegger. Gadamer's autobiography makes clear that the encounter with Heidegger in the early 1920s was quite literally fateful. Theirs was a lifelong personal and intellectual relationship. Throughout his published work and in his lectures and private conversation, Gadamer everywhere modestly acknowledges his deep debt to Heidegger. He tells us, for example, that Truth and Method, his magnum opus, was, among other things, an attempt to open the way for readers to the work of the later Heidegger. In honor of Gadamer's 100th birthday in February 2000, Hermann Heidegger, Martin Heidegger's son, dedicated the 16th volume of Heidegger's Collected Works to Gadamer, “the oldest loyal pupil of my father.” Yet in many significant and fundamental respects, Gadamer's thought, life, and work did not follow the path of Heidegger. As we shall see below, Gadamer learned and borrowed much from Heidegger, but Gadamer's own characterization of the relationship between himself and Heidegger as one of constant challenge and provocation is perhaps the best short characterization of this complex relationship. Stylistically and substantively, the difference between their two modes of thought is the difference between a meditative thinker (Heidegger) and a dialogical one (Gadamer). Not unrelated to this difference is Gadamer's refusal to take Heidegger's lead to a kind of thought that is postphilosophical. This refusal has many ramifications.
Hans-Georg Gadamer (b. 1900) is widely recognized as the leading exponent of philosophical hermeneutics. The essays in this collection examine Gadamer's biography, the core of hermeneutical theory, and the significance of his work for ethics, aesthetics, the social sciences, and theology. There is full consideration of Gadamer's appropriation of Hegel, Heidegger and the Greeks, as well as his relation to modernity, critical theory and poststructuralism.
In 1960 Hans-Georg Gadamer, then a sixty-year-old German philosophy professor at Heidelberg, published Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode). Although he authored many essays, articles, and reviews, to this point Gadamer had published only one other book, his habilitation on Plato in 1931: Plato's Dialectical Ethics. As a title for this work on a theory of interpretation, he first proposed to his publisher, Mohr Siebeck, “Philosophical Hermeneutics.” The publisher responded that “hermeneutics” was too obscure a term. Gadamer then proposed “Truth and Method” for a work that found, over time, great resonance and made “hermeneutics” and Gadamer's name commonplace in intellectual circles worldwide. Truth and Method has been translated into ten languages thus far - including Chinese and Japanese. It found and still finds a receptive readership, in part, because, as the title suggests, it addresses large and central philosophical issues in the attempt to find a way between or beyond objectivism and relativism, and scientism and irrationalism. He accomplishes this by developing an account of what he takes to be the universal hermeneutic experience of understanding. Understanding, for Gadamer, is itself always a matter of interpretation. Understanding is also always a matter of language. “Being that can be understood is language,” writes Gadamer in the culminating section of the work in which he proposes a “hermeneutical ontology” (TM 432). For his concept of the understanding and the task of ontology, Gadamer relies importantly on Martin Heidegger's treatment of these concepts in Being and Time (1927).
In many respects the philosopher Hans-Georg Gadamer has led an unremarkable life. Born into a well-to-do middle class, academic, German family, he enjoyed a Gymnasium (a secondary school preparatory to the university) and a university education that led to a career as a philosophy professor. He retired from the university at age 68 and continues to lecture and write. What distinguishes Gadamer's life is his work. With the publication of Truth and Method in 1960, he helped inaugurate, in philosophy and human studies, an interpretive turn with a worldwide impact. We also note that Gadamer has led a very long life. Born in 1900, his life spans the entire twentieth century. It goes without saying, that Gadamer has led a German life - a German life in a century that might well have been a German century on the world stage but instead was an unmitigated disaster for Germany and for the world. Gadamer's life is closely bound to Germany and its intellectual life, though in his retirement he lectured around the world and spent extensive time teaching and lecturing in North America. A look at his life can illuminate Germany's century as well as the context for his philosophical work. The work, however, is not to be understood merely within this context, for, as Gadamer himself has often argued, a philosophical or literary work always surpasses what the author understands. In addition, this German philosopher found himself with audiences and a readership worldwide.
Pegmatites at the East Kemptville Sn-Zn-Cu-Ag deposit occur within a F- and P-rich, 370 Ma topaz-muscovite leucogranite, the most evolved phase of the chemically zoned Davis Lake Pluton. Structural observations and geochronology indicate that the leucogranite intruded into an active shear/fault zone environment. Pegmatites are preferentially located near the roof zone of the intrusion and include: (1) quartz-feldspar pods (≤ 1–2 m) aligned parallel to a foliation in the leucogranite. Such pegmatites have marginal aplites or may be cored by aplites; (2) aplite-pegmatite zones with well-developed crenulate and unidirectional solidification textures; and (3) muscovite-bordered miarolitic cavities lined with quartz-feldspar ± cassiterite. Associated with areas of pegmatites are irregular- to cuspate-shaped zones enriched in muscovite. Mineralogically the pegmatites are simple, consisting of clear to black quartz, albite, microcline perthite and muscovite; topaz may be enriched in aplites coring pegmatites and coarse euhedral cassiterite is rare.
Chemically the leucogranites marginal to pegmatites are similar to the host leucogranite, but some aphanitic felsic dykes indicate extreme differentiation, as reflected by REE depletion and P-enrichment. Enrichment of pegmatitic feldspar in P2O5 (to 1 wt. %) indicates that melts contained 2–3 wt. % P2O5, whereas muscovite chemistry (to 5 wt. % F) reflects the F-rich nature of the melt. Trace and REE contents of pegmatitic feldspars are consistent with local segregation of volatile-rich melts to form pegmatites rather than extreme crystal-chemical fractionation.
Fluid inclusion studies of pegmatitic quartz and cassiterite indicate the presence of a highly saline brine (40 wt. % eq. NaCl; Na > K > Fe > Mn > Ca > Sr) of magmatic origin. Isochores modelled for a 40 wt. % eq. NaCl fluid constrain pegmatite formation at 550–600°C, thus the depressed solidus is consistent with the volatile-rich (F, P, H2O) nature of the melt. Stable isotopes demonstrate that a magmatic fluid (δ18OH2O = +5·5 to +10‰, δDH2O = −33 to −41‰ for 450–500°C) equilibrated with the pegmatites and the system cooled abruptly at c. 425°C.
The low volume of pegmatite at East Kemptville suggests that the melt was not near volatile saturation, instead pegmatite generation is interpreted to have resulted from rapid decompression related to the active shear zone setting of the granite. Although feldspar chemistry reflects a local segregation model, the chemistry of aphanitic dyke rocks indicates that the leucogranite did evolve into a more fractionated melt. The local presence of cassiterite in pegmatites and miarolitic cavities indicates that locally, saturation of Sn occurred, but not throughout the EKL where elevated Sn contents are attributed to infiltration of mineralising fluids (i.e. deuteric alteration).