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OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To develop feasible screening methods for activity of the enzyme Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) with point of care applicability. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Current knowledge establishes the relevance of G6PD as a critical therapeutic determinant for effective antimalarial therapy due to the occurrence of mutations that lead to post-treatment severe adverse effects. We present our findings on development of cost effective point-of-care screening methodologies to ascertain G6PD deficiency. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Using Patient Cohort Explorer and data from the Department of Pathology, we established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, MS as high as 11.8% (African-American males in all population, n = 2518). Next, for selection of potential target groups, we set up a protocol for recruitment of volunteers based on ethnic background, parental ethnicity, and medical history. G6PD activity was evaluated using point of care methods [Trinity Biotech test or CareSTART Biosensor], and Gold Standard quantitative spectrophotometric assay (LabCorp). Determinations in >20 subjects have showed comparable concordance. If used with a conservative interpretation of the signal, the Trinity Biotech test showed superior potential for use in the field relative to the CareSTART Biosensor. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: We established the prevalence of G6PD deficiency in our medical center. We have also setup tests for point-of-care assessment of G6PD. Pending evaluation of the relative tests performance, we will be in position to screen individuals and select them for a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the safety of antimalarial agents on scope of G6PD deficiency.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Invasive rodents detrimentally affect native bird species on many islands worldwide, and rodent eradication is a useful tool to safeguard endemic and threatened species. However, especially on tropical islands, rodent eradications can fail for various reasons, and it is unclear whether the temporary reduction of a rodent population during an unsuccessful eradication operation has beneficial effects on native birds. Here we examine the response of four endemic land bird species on subtropical Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Island Group, South Pacific Ocean, following an unsuccessful rodent eradication in 2011. We conducted point counts at 25 sampling locations in 14 survey periods between 2011 and 2015, and modelled the abundance trends of all species using binomial mixture models accounting for observer and environmental variation in detection probability. Henderson Reed Warbler Acrocephalus taiti more than doubled in abundance (2015 population estimate: 7,194-28,776), and Henderson Fruit Dove Ptilinopus insularis increased slightly between 2011 and 2015 (2015 population estimate: 4,476–10,072), while we detected no change in abundance of the Henderson Lorikeet Vini stepheni (2015 population estimate: 554–3014). Henderson Crake Zapornia atra increased to pre-eradication levels following anticipated mortality during the operation (2015 population estimate: 4,960–20,783). A temporary reduction of rat predation pressure and rat competition for fruit may have benefitted the reed warbler and the fruit dove, respectively. However, a long drought may have naturally suppressed bird populations prior to the rat eradication operation in 2011, potentially confounding the effects of temporary rat reduction and natural recovery. We therefore cannot unequivocally ascribe the population recovery to the temporary reduction of the rat population. We encourage robust monitoring of island biodiversity both before and after any management operation to better understand responses of endemic species to failed or successful operations.
To develop and pilot a clinician-rated outcome scale to evaluate symptomatic outcomes in liaison psychiatry services. Three hundred and sixty patient contacts with 207 separate individuals were rated using six subscales (mood, psychosis, cognition, substance misuse, mind–body problems and behavioural disturbance) plus two additional items (side-effects of medication and capacity to consent for medical treatment). Each item was rated on a five-point scale from 0 to 5 (nil, mild, moderate, severe and very severe).
The liaison outcome measure was acceptable and easy to use. All subscales showed acceptable interrater reliability, with the exception of the mind–body subscale. Overall, the measure appears to show stability and sensitivity to change.
The measure provides a useful and robust way to determine symptomatic change in a liaison mental health setting, although the mind–body subscale requires modification.
Objectives: Huntington’s disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that produces a bias toward risky, reward-driven decisions in situations where the outcomes of decisions are uncertain and must be discovered. However, it is unclear whether HD patients show similar biases in decision-making when learning demands are minimized and prospective risks and outcomes are known explicitly. We investigated how risk decision-making strategies and adjustments are altered in HD patients when reward contingencies are explicit. Methods: HD (N=18) and healthy control (HC; N=17) participants completed a risk-taking task in which they made a series of independent choices between a low-risk/low reward and high-risk/high reward risk options. Results: Computational modeling showed that compared to HC, who showed a clear preference for low-risk compared to high-risk decisions, the HD group valued high-risks more than low-risk decisions, especially when high-risks were rewarded. The strategy analysis indicated that when high-risk options were rewarded, HC adopted a conservative risk strategy on the next trial by preferring the low-risk option (i.e., they counted their blessings and then played the surer bet). In contrast, following a rewarded high-risk choice, HD patients showed a clear preference for repeating the high-risk choice. Conclusions: These results indicate a pattern of high-risk/high-reward decision bias in HD that persists when outcomes and risks are certain. The allure of high-risk/high-reward decisions in situations of risk certainty and uncertainty expands our insight into the dynamic decision-making deficits that create considerable clinical burden in HD. (JINS, 2016, 22, 426–435)
In North America, terrestrial records of biodiversity and climate change that span Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 5 are rare. Where found, they provide insight into how the coupling of the ocean–atmosphere system is manifested in biotic and environmental records and how the biosphere responds to climate change. In 2010–2011, construction at Ziegler Reservoir near Snowmass Village, Colorado (USA) revealed a nearly continuous, lacustrine/wetland sedimentary sequence that preserved evidence of past plant communities between ~140 and 55 ka, including all of MIS 5. At an elevation of 2705 m, the Ziegler Reservoir fossil site also contained thousands of well-preserved bones of late Pleistocene megafauna, including mastodons, mammoths, ground sloths, horses, camels, deer, bison, black bear, coyotes, and bighorn sheep. In addition, the site contained more than 26,000 bones from at least 30 species of small animals including salamanders, otters, muskrats, minks, rabbits, beavers, frogs, lizards, snakes, fish, and birds. The combination of macro- and micro-vertebrates, invertebrates, terrestrial and aquatic plant macrofossils, a detailed pollen record, and a robust, directly dated stratigraphic framework shows that high-elevation ecosystems in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado are climatically sensitive and varied dramatically throughout MIS 5.
The recent global recession has prompted significant policy responses to support aggregate demand in many countries. A number of central banks have deployed a broader range of policy tools than usual, including so-called ‘unconventional’ monetary policies that involve the purchase of assets by the central bank. There are several potential approaches to unconventional monetary policy depending on, among other things, whether the assets are purchased from the government or the private sector and whether the purchases are associated with an expansion of the monetary base. In general, however, these policy actions affect the size and/or composition of the central bank’s balance sheet.
As noted by Meier (2009), different approaches to unconventional monetary policy can be motivated by alternative views of the transmission channels through which they affect activity and inflation. This chapter considers a ‘portfolio balance’ transmission mechanism, in which purchases of assets held by the private-sector increase the prices of those assets. As asset prices increase, yields fall and private-sector borrowing costs are reduced, stimulating aggregate demand. Importantly, such asset purchases may provide the policy maker with a policy instrument that can be operated even during periods where the short-term nominal interest rate typically used to implement monetary policy reaches a lower bound.
Hybridization between species often results in offspring that are less fit than pure parental forms and may result in selection for traits that enhance prezygotic barriers to gene flow (a process known as reinforcement). Evolutionary biologists also recognize a role for interspecific hybridization in promoting the evolution of novel forms (Stebbins 1950; Anderson & Stebbins 1954; Harrison 1993a,b; Rhymer & Simberloff 1996; Arnold 1997). Natural hybridization occurs relatively frequently among divergent populations or species of plants and animals (Stace 1975; Barton & Bengtsson 1986; Grant & Grant 1992; Mallet 2005), and, despite the relative rarity of hybrids in any single population, only a few are needed to allow the exchange of advantageous alleles between species (i.e., introgression). The historical admixture of genomes has also contributed to speciation, especially in plants but also in some animal taxa (Arnold 1997; Dowling & Secor 1997; Mallet 2005; Gompert et al. 2006; Mavárez et al. 2006; Grant & Grant 2008).
In conservation biology, the predominant view is that introgressive hybridization is a cause of extinction (Rhymer & Simberloff 1996; Wolf et al. 2001), especially when hybridization events are anthropogenically mediated. Previously allopatric species are now commonly brought into contact due to anthropogenic introductions (Pysek et al. 1995). Likewise, previously parapatric or sympatric species now commonly hybridize due to human-induced changes in the environment that reduce elements of habitat heterogeneity that once contributed to diversification and maintained species independence (e.g., through ecological isolation; see Candolin et al. 2006; Hendry et al. 2006; Seehausen et al. 2008). Some have argued that this “smoothing” of landscapes is equivalent to a “speciation reversal,” a process that will become increasingly common in changing environments (Seehausen et al. 2008).
Adult Asian long-horned beetles, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae: Lamiinae), were discovered in Ontario, Canada, in 2003 in the vicinity of a commercial warehouse. Trees were heavily scarred with signs of attack and larvae and adult beetles were common, suggesting that there had been multiple generations at the site. We amplified 16 microsatellite loci from 326 beetles to examine genetic diversity in this population. Based on Hardy – Weinberg equilibrium, 6 of 16 loci were monomorphic and 8 were not, indicating nonrandom mating. Measures of microsatellite genetic diversity and mitochondrial DNA haplotype diversity were significantly lower than those in A. glabripennis from China and Korea but were not significantly different from those in the New York City population. The proportion of different multilocus genotypes in the Ontario population was lower than in the populations in New York City and Linden, New Jersey. These results suggest that limited genetic diversity in the Ontario population has not hampered reproduction of this invasive insect. This genetic signature is common in other invasive species, likely because a population is founded by a few closely related individuals, or a large founding population suffers subsequent genetic bottlenecks.