To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Impairments and developmental delay are often reported in infants and young children with CHD. However, currently, there is no data regarding cognitive abilities assessed by standardised intelligence tests in adults with CHD. This study assesses the cognitive function in Fontan patients compared with acyanotic CHD patients whether restrictions in cognitive function are present in adulthood and its association with health-related quality of life.
Forty-four adult CHD (female n = 21 (47.7%); mean age 34.7 ± 11.9 years), 22 with Fontan circulation and 22 with acyanotic CHD, underwent the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for adults as patients during routine follow-up in 2018. The Medical Outcomes Study Questionnaire Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36) assessed health-related quality of life.
Fontan patients showed significantly better results in the FSIQ (p = 0.020) and perceptual reasoning (p = 0.017) in comparison with patients with acyanotic CHD. All adult CHD patients showed normal IQ in subscales and full-scale IQ (FSIQ). In health-related quality of life, no association with cognitive function was found and no significant difference between both CHD groups, but trends to reduced values in acyanotic adult CHD.
Interestingly, our study results in adult Fontan patients showed that it is possible to live an adult life with normal cognitive function and good health-related quality of life with a univentricular heart. Thus, this study could be a guidepost for more in-depth studies on cognitive function in Fontan survivors. In addition, the focus should be on health-related quality of life of adult CHD with simple CHD in particular, since a reduced health-related quality of life is not only medically based.
Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are the most common congenital malformations. Patients with CHD have a higher morbidity and mortality rate and are at greater risk for infectious diseases. The risk might even be higher if complex CHD occurs and if CHD is associated with additional co-morbidities. Therefore, immunisations in these children are essential.
Materials and Methods:
Individuals were recruited at the outpatient centre of the Department of Congenital Heart Defects and Pediatric Cardiology at the German Heart Center Munich in the time between February 2016 and February 2017. Included were children between 23 months and 17 years and a diagnosis of CHD. The vaccination certificate aimed to assess the immunization status.
In total, 657 children with CHD were included and analysed. Regarding primary immunisation, only 34 % (n = 221) of the children reached the complete vaccination status within the allowed catch-up time. Among these primary immunisation rates, vaccinations against Hepatitis B, Meningococci, Varicella and Pneumococci were found to have the lowest coverage with all being below 80%. The vaccination rate was partly influenced by the previously performed number of surgeries but not by the diagnosis of specific genetic diseases. At the age of school entry, the immunisation rate in children with CHD was also lower than in the comparable healthy population.
The vaccination coverage rate in children with CHD is lower than in comparable healthy children, although this is a vulnerable patient group. Further education of parents and treating physicians of children with CHD regarding vaccination is still needed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.