To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) emerged from a city in China and has now spread as a global pandemic affecting millions of individuals. The causative agent, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is being extensively studied in terms of its genetic epidemiology using genomic approaches. Andhra Pradesh is one of the major states of India with the third-largest number of COVID-19 cases with a limited understanding of its genetic epidemiology. In this study, we have sequenced 293 SARS-CoV-2 genome isolates from Andhra Pradesh with a mean coverage of 13324X. We identified 564 high-quality SARS-CoV-2 variants. A total of 18 variants mapped to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction primer/probe sites, and four variants are known to be associated with an increase in infectivity. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes revealed the circulating SARS-CoV-2 in Andhra Pradesh majorly clustered under the clade A2a (20A, 20B and 20C) (94%), whereas 6% fall under the I/A3i clade, a clade previously defined to be present in large numbers in India. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most comprehensive genetic epidemiological analysis performed for the state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Cretaceous chaetetid sponge Acanthochaetetes huauclillensis Sánchez-Beristain and García-Barrera is reported for the first time from the Aptian–Cenomanian Khalsi Formation, Ladakh Himalaya, India. Its low- to high-domical growth form could suggest an adaptation to either an environment with constant sedimentation rates, or to an irregular substrate. However, these growth forms also may indicate an absence of important environmental/sedimentological changes during the lifespan of the sponges. In addition, the growth form of this species suggests a calm, non-turbulent, reef-like microenvironment. Along with the other faunal assemblages, such as the rudists, corals, and the gastropod Nerinea, A. huauclillensis indicates a tropical to subtropical shallow marine carbonate platform setting. This new finding extends its stratigraphic range from the upper Hauterivian to the Aptian–Cenomanian interval in the eastern Tethyan realm.
To assess the level, pattern and determinants of minimum acceptable diet (MAD) feeding in Odisha, India.
Utilising cross-sectional data, the MAD was estimated through a dietary assessment method wherein the child’s mother was asked to recall all the food intake of the youngest child the previous day and night of the surveyed date.
National Family Health Survey 2015–2016.
Children aged 6–23 months, living with mother and for whom complete information on MAD was available (n 3073).
Only 8·4 % of the children aged 6–23 months were fed MAD, and the MAD feeding varies considerably by socio-demographic characteristics. Children aged 12–17 months had two times (OR: 2·51, 95 % CI (1·48, 4·26)) and those aged 18–23 months had three times (OR: 3·77, 95 % CI (2·25, 6·30)) higher odds of having a MAD than their counterparts aged 6–8 months. Children whose mother was exposed to any mass media had a higher chance of MAD feeding (OR: 1·46, 95 % CI (1·01, 2·11)).
The children of higher age, second or higher-order births, with mother exposed to mass media are significantly more likely to be fed with a MAD. At the same time, children from scheduled caste (SC) households have a lower probability of MAD feeding. The lower MAD feeding among the SC households suggests strengthening the ongoing programmes with a higher emphasis on the inclusion of this disadvantaged and marginalised group. Findings from the current study would assist policymakers, and public health managers improve MAD feeding practices in Odisha, India, in a targeted manner.
The study aims to estimate and compare the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence, the fraction of asymptomatic or subclinical infections in the population, determine the demographic risk factors and analyse the antibody development at different time points among adults in Bhubaneswar city, India. This was a serial three-round cross-sectional, community-based study where participants were selected from the residents of Bhubaneswar city using multi-stage random sampling. Blood samples were collected during household visits along with demographic and clinical data from every participant. Total anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody present in serum was assessed using the electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay platform. Temporal comparisons of the community seroprevalence were performed against the detected number of cumulative cases, active cases, recoveries and deaths. A total of 3693 participants were enrolled in this study with a cumulative non-response rate of 18.33% in all the three rounds. The gender-weighted seroprevalence for the city in the first round was 1.55% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.84–2.58), second round was 5.27% (95% CI 4.13–6.59) and in the third round was 49.04% (95% CI 46.39–51.68). In the first round, the seroprevalence was found to be highest in the elderly population, whereas the seroprevalence for the second and third phases was highest in the age group of 30–39 years. Seroprevalence showed an increasing trend over the three time periods, with the highest seropositivity rates among individuals sampled between 16 and 18 September 2020. By the third round, 93.93% of those who had previously been tested positive by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction had seroconversion and 46.57% of those who had been tested negative also showed seroconversion. Infection to case ratio during first round was 27.05, for second round and third round it was 5.62 and 17.91, respectively.
Soil and nutrients losses due to soil erosion are detrimental to crop production, especially in the hilly terrains. An experiment was carried out in three consecutive cropping seasons (2012–2015) with four treatments: sole maize; sole maize with plastic mulch; maize and cowpea under plastic mulching; and maize and soybean under plastic mulching in randomized block design (RBD) to assess their impact on productivity, profitability, and resource (rainwater, soil, and NPK nutrients) conservation in the Indian sub-Himalayan region. The plot size was 9 × 8.1 m with 2% slope, and runoff and soil loss were measured using a multi-slot devisor. The results showed that mean runoff decreased from 356 mm in sole maize with plastic mulch plots to 229 mm in maize + cowpea intercropping with plastic mulch, representing a reduction of 36% and corresponding soil loss reduction was 41% (from 9.4 to 5.5 t ha−1). The eroded soil exported a considerable amount of nitrogen (N) (13.2–31.4 kg ha−1), phosphorous (P) (0.5–1.7 kg ha−1), and potassium (K) (9.9–15.6 kg ha−1) and was consistently lower in maize + cowpea intercropping. The maize equivalent yield (MEY) was significantly higher in maize + cowpea with plastic mulch intercropping than the other treatments. These results justify the need to adopt maize with alternate legume intercrops and plastic mulch. This strategy must be done in a way guaranteeing high yield stability to the smallholder farmers of the Indian sub-Himalayan region.
The artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) formed by meta-materials is used in the micro-strip antenna design for microwave sensor applications. The AMC structures with two uniplanar layers, which include modified square split-ring resonator cells, are repeated and formed into a 5 × 3 array. The antenna's operational bandwidth result is significant, and it is in the range of 2.8–10 GHz with a maximum gain of 11.8 dB. Cancer or malignant tumor cells have entirely different electrical properties than healthy breast tissue. Principal component analysis and specific absorption rate (SAR) are used as a parameter to identify cancer or malignant tumor cells in the breast. The SAR values have been calculated for each layer of the 3D breast model. The results show a difference in the SAR values based on the size and tumors' locations.
This study was conducted to develop and validate a questionnaire to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on lifestyle-related behaviour related to eating, activity and sleep pattern.
Indexed study used a mixed method design. Phase I employed qualitative methods for development of questionnaire including literature review, focus group discussion, expert evaluation and pre-testing. Phase II used quantitative methods for establishing construct validity of the questionnaire via parallel factor analysis.
Phase 1 involved participation of experts from different fields (Departments of Medicine, Nutrition and Clinical Psychology) and general adult population. For phase II, data were collected from 124 adult respondents (female = 57·26 %); mean age (36 ± 14·8 years) residing in an urban setting.
The questionnaire consisted of three sections: (A) socio-demographic and anthropometric parameters, (B) twenty-four items each for investigating the changes in eating, activity and sleep behaviour before v. during COVID-19, (C) six items assessing COVID-19 specific reasons for lifestyle change. The Cronbach’s α value of the questionnaire is 0·83 suggesting its good internal consistency.
This appears to be a valid tool to assess the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle-related behaviours with potential utility for public health researchers to identify these changes at community level and develop strategies to reinforce corrective behaviours.
The exact process of the malignant conversion of oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) to oral cancer is not fully understood. This study aimed to detect and analyze E-cadherin expression, p63 expression, and number of mitotic figures, all correlated to cancer development, in ApoTome images of oral tissues to determine the oncogenic potentiality of OSF. ApoTome images of the study groups (6 normal, 16 OSF with dysplasia, and 10 OSF without dysplasia) were recorded. Cytoplasmic and membranous E-cadherin expression, breakages of the cell membrane, and p63 expression were detected in MATLAB 2016b. The number of mitotic figures detected by MATLAB was correlated with the number of chromosomes detected by ImageJ. A Mann–Whitney U test was done to determine a significant difference between the study groups for cytoplasmic and membranous E-cadherin distribution points. Statistical significant differences were found for cytoplasmic E-cadherin distribution between normal and OSF (with dysplasia) (p = 0.0278). There was an increase in mitotic figures, p63 expression, and cytoplasmic E-cadherin expression and a decrease in membranous E-cadherin expression from normal to diseased condition. Hence, automated detection and quantification of E-cadherin, p63, and mitotic figures in ApoTome images of oral biopsies can help in determining the oncogenic potentiality of OSF.
The catostylid jellyfish, Crambionella annandalei was originally described by Rao (1932) based on a preserved specimen collected from the Andaman Sea. Since then, no detailed taxonomic studies have been conducted and the species is often misidentified. Here, we provide a detailed morphological re-description of C. annandalei from fresh material collected at a variety of locations along the east coast of India. The species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of morphological characters, the most important of which are the proportion of terminal club length to oral arm length (0.48 ± 0.031), the proportion of the distal portion of the oral arm to naked proximal portion (7.25 ± 0.268) and the body colour. The occurrence of intra-specific colour variation in fresh specimens was also observed in the present study.
Castor is a prime industrial crop belonging to a monotypic genus and its genetic improvement depends on creating desired variability in the primary gene pool. This study reports the development of tetraploid castor plants through colchicine treatment. Seeds of three castor genotypes were soaked in aqueous solutions of colchicine with variable concentrations, and the LD50 value was determined. Of 1010 treated field-raised plants, three were identified as potential polyploids based on increases in a guard cell size and reductions in the number of stomata. The putative polyploid plants were selfed and the progeny were subjected to meiotic analysis. All the progeny were found to be tetraploid. The pairing of chromosomes was abnormal with univalent to octavalent configurations during meiosis-I, but the later parts of meiosis were normal. Seasonal variations in pollen fertility indicated the possible role of temperature-sensitive male sterility in causing the sterility in tetraploid plants. The tetraploid plants were phenotypically comparable with their diploid counterparts, but produced substantially bigger seeds. Thus, these tetraploid plants are valuable resources for basic and applied research in castor.
This paper presents three different age domains, obtained by electron microprobe monazite dating, for granulitic gneisses collected from the Shillong-Meghalaya Gneissic Complex in Sonapahar, NE India, which contain radioactive materials, e.g. thorium (3.32–7.20 wt %), uranium (0.133–1.172 wt %) and lead (0.101–0.513 wt %). The microprobe analyses of monazite grains in the rock samples show that the monazites have three different ages ranging from Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic. The oldest age (1571 ± 22 Ma) represents a peak metamorphic event, the youngest dominant age indicates the Pan-African tectonic event (478 ± 7 Ma) and the intermediate age marks the Grenvillian orogeny (1034 ± 91 Ma) or may be a mixing artefact; these ages are located at the cores, rims and intermediate parts of the monazite grains, respectively. The equilibrium mineral phases calculated for the granulitic gneisses from Sonapahar lie in a P–T range from 5.9 kbar/754 °C to 8.3 kbar/829 °C in the NCKFMASH system. Plotting the P–T conditions of the granulitic gneisses reveals a clockwise P–T path. Two major metamorphic events are observed in Sonapahar. The M1 metamorphic stage is represented by peak mineral assemblages of prograde garnet-forming reactions (8.2 kbar/∼713 °C) during Mesoproterozoic time (1571 ± 22 Ma). The M2 metamorphic stage featured decompression (3.9 kbar/∼701 °C) in which garnet–sillimanite broke down to form cordierite along an isothermal decompression path during the Pan-African tectonic event (478 ± 7 Ma).
Research on informed choice in modern contraceptive method acceptance by young married women is pertinent in the broader context of individual freedom and reproductive rights, especially in countries where women continue to have limited control over their reproductive and contraceptive choices. This study in India asked: (1) is young married women’s acceptance of specific modern contraceptive methods an informed choice? and (2) what are the enablers and barriers to informed choice? The study used data for currently married women aged 15–24 (N = 20,752) from the fourth round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted in 2015–16. A Method Information Index (MII) was calculated as a measure of informed choice from the percentage of users who responded ‘yes’ to all three questions on: whether they were informed about methods other than the one they received, told about the method-specific side-effects, and advised what to do if they experienced side-effects. Binary logistic regression analysis was carried out to examine the adjusted effect of factors associated with the MII separately for female sterilization, the intrauterine device and the oral contraceptive pill, and a combined MII including all three methods plus injectables. One-fifth of the study women used any modern contraceptive method at the time of survey, of which only 36% had fully informed choice. The likelihood of being informed about the methods was significantly higher among those using the oral contraceptive pill (OR: 1.75, CI 1.58–1.94), IUD (OR: 2.23, CI 1.97–2.52) and injectables (OR: 1.37, CI 0.97–1.94) compared with those who were sterilized. Informed choice varied by region and the socioeconomic profile of the users. Inadequately informed choice violates the reproductive rights of young women and might result in higher post-use health problems, discontinuation of and unmet need for contraceptives, unintended pregnancies, induced abortions and regret, adversely affecting women’s health. Training of health/family planning workers in India about the importance of reproductive rights is urgently required to enhance informed contraceptive choice and improve the health of young married women.
Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a common benign lesion that causes significant morbidity due to the failure of modern medical and surgical treatment. Surface ultra-structures of giant cells (GCs) may help in distinguishing aggressive tumors from indolent GC lesions. This study aimed to standardize scanning electron microscopic (SEM) imaging of GC from GCT of bone. Fresh GCT collected in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium was washed to remove blood, homogenized, or treated with collagenase to isolate the GCs. Mechanically homogenized and collagenase-digested GCs were imaged on SEM after commonly used drying methodologies such as air-drying, tetramethylsilane (TMS)-drying, freeze-drying, and critical point-drying (CPD) for the optimization of sample processing. The collagenase-treated samples yielded a greater number of isolated GC and showed better surface morphology in comparison to mechanical homogenization. Air-drying was associated with marked cell shrinkage, and freeze-dried samples showed severe cell damage. TMS methodology partially preserved the cell contour and surface structures, although the cell shape was distorted. GC images with optimum surface morphology including membrane folding and microvesicular structures on the surface were observed only in collagenase-treated and critical point-dried samples. Collagenase digestion and critical point/TMS-drying should be performed for optimal SEM imaging of individual GCs.
We have performed photometric analysis of four Galactic globular clusters (GGCs): NGC 4147, NGC 4590, NGC 5053 and NGC 7492 using far-UV and near-UV filters of the Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) on-board AstroSat. With the help of color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), we have identified ~150 blue horizontal branch stars (BHBs), and ~40 blue straggler stars (BSS) in the four GGCs. We study the temperature and radial distribution of BHBs and BSS for the four GGCs.
This paper presents a substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) mixed electric and magnetic coupling structure implemented on a single-layer substrate to create finite transmission zeros (TZs), which can be used to design microwave filters with higher frequency selectivity. Mixed coupling is realized by three slot-lines on the top metal plane combined with an iris-window between two adjacent SIW cavities. The electric and magnetic coupling can be separately controlled by adjusting the dimensions of the slot-lines and the width of the iris-window, and a controllable TZ below or above the passband can be produced. Furthermore, a detailed analysis of the mixed coupling structure is presented. To demonstrate the validity of the proposed structure, third- and fourth-order cross-coupled generalized Chebyshev bandpass filters are designed and fabricated using the standard printed circuit board process. The experimental results are in good agreement with the simulation results. The filters exhibit simple structure and good frequency selectivity.
We consider a scale invariant Cassinian metric and a Gromov hyperbolic metric. We discuss a distortion property of the scale invariant Cassinian metric under Möbius maps of a punctured ball onto another punctured ball. We obtain a modulus of continuity of the identity map from a domain equipped with the scale invariant Cassinian metric (or the Gromov hyperbolic metric) onto the same domain equipped with the Euclidean metric. Finally, we establish the quasi-invariance properties of both metrics under quasiconformal maps.
This study aimed to evaluate the surgical success of a modified inlay tympanoplasty technique, known as circumferential subannular tympanoplasty, for anterior and subtotal perforations.
This prospective study was performed in a tertiary care teaching hospital between October 2013 and April 2016. A total of 58 adult patients of both sexes with anterior or subtotal perforations underwent circumferential subannular tympanoplasty under local anaesthesia. In this technique, after tympanomeatal flap elevation, the temporalis fascia graft is placed directly onto the annulus instead of being tucked underneath the tympanic membrane remnant. Outcome data were graft uptake and hearing improvement.
This technique had a surgical success rate of 97 per cent and led to significant hearing improvement.
Circumferential subannular tympanoplasty has a definitive role in managing anterior and subtotal perforations.
A probe feed wideband multi-element dual segments quarter cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (q-CDRA) in composite forms have been proposed. The q-CDRA has been introduced by splitting CDRA into four uniform quarters and multi-segmentation approach has been castoff for further improvement in bandwidth of q-CDRA. The dual segments q-CDRA has been designed and analyzed using theoretical analysis and Ansoft HFSS simulation software. Further the dual segment multi-element q-CDRAs in composite form have been designed. A coaxial probe has been placed at the center of the ground plane for the excitation of proposed multi-element and multi-segmented composite form of q-CDRA, which excite TM01δ mode in the proposed antenna. The input characteristics and radiation patterns of the proposed composite antennas have been studied and their results are compared with corresponding experimental results. Prototype of single, two, and four elements dual-segment composite q-CDRAs have been fabricated and input characteristics of the proposed composite antennas have been compared with each other. Four elements dual-segment composite q-CDRA has shown wide impedance bandwidth (|S11| ≤ −10 dB) of 85.13% with monopole-like radiation pattern. The peak gain of 4.85 dBi with 98.5% radiation efficiency has been achieved for dual-segment four elements composite q-CDRA. The proposed multi-element dual-segment composite q-CDRAs may find suitable applications in C and X-band with complete covering of the 5.0 GHZ wireless local area network (WLAN) and worldwide interoperability for microwave access (WiMAX) band.
A novel quarter cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (q-CDRA) has been introduced by splitting four uniform quarters from a cylinder. q-CDRA has been designed and validated with theoretical analysis. Two and four element q-CDRAs have been proposed in composite forms through Ansoft high-frequency structure simulator simulation software and fabricated for experimental investigation. The input characteristics and radiation patterns of the proposed antennas have been studied through simulation and compared with the measured ones. The |S11| characteristics of the proposed antennas have been compared with each other. The four-element composite q-CDRA has wide impedance bandwidth (|S11| ≤ −10 dB) of 58.15% with monopole-like radiation pattern as compared with other q-CDRAs. The two and four elements q-CDRAs have symmetric monopole-like radiation patterns with linear polarization for whole operating bandwidth (4.5–8.6 GHz). The proposed composite q-CDRAs may find suitable applications in WLAN and WiMAX band.
In this paper, a wideband two-segmented four-element triangular dielectric resonator antenna (TDRA) with coaxial probe feed has been proposed. The proposed antenna has been analyzed, optimized, and studied through Ansoft HFSS simulation software. The prototype of the proposed antenna has been fabricated and its input characteristics are measured with the help of R&S Vector Network Analyzer. Good agreement has been obtained between simulated and measured results. The proposed design has been compared with two segments TDRA and found wider bandwidth with lower resonant frequency. The proposed antenna provides monopole-like radiation pattern over the entire bandwidth with nearly 33% bandwidth (return loss ≥10 dB) at a resonant frequency 6.9 GHz and 4.93 dBi peak gain. The proposed antenna is suitable for application of C-band microwave frequencies.