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Cognitive mechanisms that characterize or precede depressive symptoms are poorly understood. We investigated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between risk taking to obtain reward and adolescent depressive symptoms in a large prospective cohort, using the Cambridge Gambling Task (CGT). We also explored sex differences.
The Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an ongoing UK study, following the lives of 19 000 individuals born 2000/02. The CGT was completed at ages 11 (n = 12 355) and 14 (n = 10 578). Our main exposure was the proportion of points gambled, when the odds of winning were above chance (risk-taking to obtain reward). Outcomes were emotional symptoms (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, SDQ) at age 11 and depressive symptoms (short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, sMFQ) at age 14. We calculated cross-sectional and longitudinal associations, using linear regressions.
In univariable models, there was evidence of cross-sectional associations between risk-taking and SDQ/sMFQ scores, but these associations disappeared after we adjusted for sex. Longitudinally, there was weak evidence of an association between risk-taking and depressive symptoms in females only [a 20-point increase in risk-taking at age 11 was associated with a reduction of 0.31 sMFQ points at age 14 (95% CI −0.60 to −0.02)]. At both time-points, females were less risk-taking than males.
We found no convincing evidence of a relationship between risk-taking to obtain reward and depressive symptoms. There were large sex differences in risk-taking, but these do not appear to contribute to the female preponderance of depressive symptoms in adolescence.
To identify correlates of anaemia during the first trimester of pregnancy among 366 urban South Indian pregnant women.
Cross-sectional study evaluating demographic, socio-economic, anthropometric and dietary intake data on haematological outcomes.
A government maternity health-care centre catering predominantly to the needs of pregnant women from the lower socio-economic strata of urban Bangalore.
Pregnant women (n 366) aged ≥18 and ≤40 years, who registered for antenatal screening at ≤14 weeks of gestation.
Mean age was 22·6 (sd 3·4) years, mean BMI was 20·4 (sd 3·3) kg/m2 and 236 (64·5 %) of the pregnant women were primiparous. The prevalence of anaemia (Hb <11·0 g/dl) was 30·3 % and of microcytic anaemia (anaemia with mean corpuscular volume <80 fl) 20·2 %. Mean dietary intakes of energy, Ca, Fe and folate were well below the Indian RDA. In multivariable log-binomial regression analysis, anaemia was independently associated with high dietary intakes of Ca (relative risk; 95 % CI: 1·79; 1·16, 2·76) and P (1·96; 1·31, 2·96) and high intake of meat, fish and poultry (1·94; 1·29, 2·91).
Low dietary intake of multiple micronutrients, but higher intakes of nutrients that inhibit Fe absorption such as Ca and P, may help explain high rates of maternal anaemia in India.
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