To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The gold standard for hand hygiene (HH) while wearing gloves requires removing gloves, performing HH, and donning new gloves between WHO moments. The novel strategy of applying alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) directly to gloved hands might be effective and efficient.
A mixed-method, multicenter, 3-arm, randomized trial.
Adult and pediatric medical-surgical, intermediate, and intensive care units at 4 hospitals.
Healthcare personnel (HCP).
HCP were randomized to 3 groups: ABHR applied directly to gloved hands, the current standard, or usual care.
Gloved hands were sampled via direct imprint. Gold-standard and usual-care arms were compared with the ABHR intervention.
Bacteria were identified on gloved hands after 432 (67.4%) of 641 observations in the gold-standard arm versus 548 (82.8%) of 662 observations in the intervention arm (P < .01). HH required a mean of 14 seconds in the intervention and a mean of 28.7 seconds in the gold-standard arm (P < .01). Bacteria were identified on gloved hands after 133 (98.5%) of 135 observations in the usual-care arm versus 173 (76.6%) of 226 observations in the intervention arm (P < .01). Of 331 gloves tested 6 (1.8%) were found to have microperforations; all were identified in the intervention arm [6 (2.9%) of 205].
Compared with usual care, contamination of gloved hands was significantly reduced by applying ABHR directly to gloved hands but statistically higher than the gold standard. Given time savings and microbiological benefit over usual care and lack of feasibility of adhering to the gold standard, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization should consider advising HCP to decontaminate gloved hands with ABHR when HH moments arise during single-patient encounters.
While cystic follicles remain a significant problem in dairy cows, their aetiology still remains unclear. Recent studies have shown that treatment with low levels of progesterone can interfere with the induction of an LH surge and induce cystic follicles leading to the theory that supra basal concentrations of progesterone may act as a trigger for the formation of cystic follicles (Silvia et al., 2002).
In the cow, the embryo during the first three weeks of pregnancy is free living in the uterine lumen and is dependent on the maternal glandular secretions for its nutritional support. If the environment is appropriate, the embryo will develop sufficiently to prevent luteolysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the regulation of factors involved in embryonic-endometrial interactions during early pregnancy. Uterine horn sections were collected from 17 pregnant (PREG), 9 inseminated but no embryo present and 10 uninseminated cyclic control cows on days 12, 14, 16 and 18 after natural oestrus. The latter two groups were combined to form a single non-pregnant (NP) group. Trophoblast sections were also collected from the day 14, 16 and 18 embryos. The mRNA for interferon tau (IFNτ), oxytocin receptor (OTR), oestrogen receptor a (ER), prostaglandin G/H synthase -2 (PGHS-2), insulin-like growth factor (IGF) -I and IGF binding protein -1 (IGFBP-1) was determined by in situ hybridisation using 45 mer oligonucleotide probes end-labelled with35 S. The optical density (OD) readings were measured from the resulting autoradiographs. The expression of IFNτ mRNA in the trophodectoderm did not vary with embryo age. The expression of OTR mRNA in the luminal epithelium was first detectable on day 14 in 2 out of 5 NP cows and increased thereafter. Conversely, OTR mRNA was undetectable in all PREG cows except for one day 18 cow. In the NP cows, the first significant increase in ER mRNA concentrations in the luminal epithelium was observed on day 16. The pregnancy had no effect on ER mRNA concentrations in the luminal epithelium on days 12 and 14, but was significantly reduced on day 16 and was undetectable by day 18. On day 18, PGHS-2 mRNA was detectable in the luminal epithelium of all cows, but was unaffected by pregnancy status. The expression of IGF-I mRNA in the subepithelial stroma was maintained from days 12 to 18, but was reduced in the day 18 NP cows. IGFBP-1 mRNA concentrations in the luminal epithelium peaked on day 14 in both NP and PREG cows. Thereafter, concentrations declined in the NP group but were maintained in the PREG animals. In conclusion, the suppression of OTR mRNA expression by the embryo does not appear to require the prior suppression of ER mRNA. The continued expression of IGF-I and IGFBP-1 mRNA is likely to play an important role in the establishment of early pregnancy in the cow.
Interfacial roughening during ion irradiation of an immiscible system is investigated by Monte Carlo computer simulation and by an x-ray diffraction technique called crystal truncation rod (CTR) analysis. In the simulations, ion flux and sample temperature are varied, and the system is allowed to evolve under irradiation until it reaches a steady state behavior. The observed behaviors are then sought experimentally in the Cu/Nb system implanted with 2 MeV Kr+ ions at different sample temperatures. Analysis of the roughness at the Cu interface is based upon the existence of a crystal truncation rod, which contains information on exactly how the crystal is terminated, or, in other words, the interfacial roughness. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) is also used to study the intermixing of the Cu and Nb layers.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.