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Elemental, chemical, and structural analysis of polycrystalline materials at the micron scale is frequently carried out using microfocused synchrotron X-ray beams, sometimes on multiple instruments. The Maia pixelated energy-dispersive X-ray area detector enables the simultaneous collection of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and diffraction because of the relatively large solid angle and number of pixels when compared with other systems. The large solid angle also permits extraction of surface topography because of changes in self-absorption. This work demonstrates the capability of the Maia detector for simultaneous measurement of XRF and diffraction for mapping the short- and long-range order across the grain structure in a Ni polycrystalline foil.
The influence of baseline severity has been examined for antidepressant
medications but has not been studied properly for cognitive–behavioural
therapy (CBT) in comparison with pill placebo.
To synthesise evidence regarding the influence of initial severity on
efficacy of CBT from all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in which
CBT, in face-to-face individual or group format, was compared with
pill-placebo control in adults with major depression.
A systematic review and an individual-participant data meta-analysis
using mixed models that included trial effects as random effects. We used
multiple imputation to handle missing data.
We identified five RCTs, and we were given access to individual-level
data (n = 509) for all five. The analyses revealed that
the difference in changes in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression between
CBT and pill placebo was not influenced by baseline severity (interaction
P = 0.43). Removing the non-significant interaction
term from the model, the difference between CBT and pill placebo was a
standardised mean difference of –0.22 (95% CI –0.42 to –0.02,
P = 0.03, I2 = 0%).
Patients suffering from major depression can expect as much benefit from
CBT across the wide range of baseline severity. This finding can help
inform individualised treatment decisions by patients and their
A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the ‘very fast spectroscopic mode’ by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.
Cattle are members of the Ruminantia, which represent the most successful group of extant large herbivores in terms of species diversity. Ruminants have a multi-chambered forestomach, similar to other foregut fermenters like kangaroo, hippos, peccaries or sloths (Langer 1988); this means that plant material is partly digested by symbiotic microbes before the whole digesta – which includes the partly digested diet and the microbes – is passed on to the lower digestive tract where the herbivore’s own enzymes further digest this mixture. Because microbial protein is a major component of this mixture, foregut fermenters produce a set of specific enzymes in their glandular stomach and small intestine that help break down microbial cells, so that their protein can be used (Pacheco et al. 2007). Functional ruminants – the phylogenetic ruminants as well as the camelids – combine simple foregut fermentation with peculiar sorting mechanisms that assure that larger digesta particles are regurgitated and re-masticated (ruminated). This process of rumination is an obligatory physiological feature, facilitates a more efficient particle size reduction (Fritz et al. 2009), higher digestive efficiencies (Foose 1982) and potentially also higher food intake levels than observed in non-ruminant foregut fermenters (Clauss et al. 2010a).
Ruminant digestive anatomy and physiology
The ruminant stomach consists of four compartments – three representing the forestomach complex, and the last representing the glandular stomach (‘abomasum’), the equivalent of the stomach of monogastric animals (Hofmann & Schnorr 1982). The three forestomach compartments are, in the sequence of the digestive process, the rumen, the reticulum and the omasum (Figure 6.1). From the outside, the rumen and the reticulum form a unit – a large fermentation chamber with several sub-compartments, including the dorsal and the ventral rumen, the dorsal and ventral rumen blindsacs, the atrium ruminis and the reticulum. The whole complex is often referred to as the reticulorumen (RR). The reticulum is the most cranial part of the RR. On the right side of the RR, the omasum is a distinct structure. In contrast to the RR, which has a consistency of the digesta it contains, the omasum is more solid to the touch, and ball- or bean-shaped. The omasum leads to the abomasum, which in turn leads to the small and then the large intestine.
A modified critical point model dielectric function for graphene is derived here and used to analyze spectroscopic ellipsometry data obtained over a wide spectral range from 3 to 9 eV. Critical point and exciton resonance energies are extracted and discussed. Our findings indicate that epitaxial graphene on SiC to exhibits equivalent exciton behavior to that of suspended graphene. We further apply our model dielectric function to evaluate dielectric function data for highly oriented pyrolytic graphite reported in the literature. Excellent agreement is found between the critical point model developed here and the literature data even for the low energy spectral range up to 1 eV.
The early Neolithic in northern Central Europe ought to be the theatre in which incoming farmers meet local hunter-gatherers, with greater or lesser impact. By way of contrast, the authors use isotope analysis in a cemetery beside the Danube to describe a peaceful, well-integrated community with a common diet and largely indigenous inhabitants. Men and women may have had different mobility strategies, but the isotopes did not signal special origins or diverse food-producing roles. Other explanations attend the variations in the burial rites of individuals and their distribution into cemetery plots.
Although predictions suggest that ocean acidification will significantly impact polar oceans within 20–30 years, there is limited information regarding present-day pH dynamics of the Southern Ocean. Here, we present novel high-frequency observations of pH collected during spring of 2010 using SeaFET pH sensors at three locations under fast sea ice in the southern Ross Sea. During these deployments in McMurdo Sound, baseline pH ranged between 8.019–8.045, with low to moderate overall variation (0.043–0.114 units) on the scale of hours to days. The variation was predominantly in the direction of increased pH relative to baseline observations. Estimates of aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) were > 1 with no observations of subsaturation. Time series records such as these are significant to the Antarctic science community; this information can be leveraged towards framing more environmentally relevant laboratory experiments aimed at assessing the vulnerability of Antarctic species to ocean acidification. In addition, increased spatial and temporal coverage of pH datasets may reveal ecologically significant patterns. Specifically, whether such variation in natural ocean pH dynamics may drive local adaptation to pH variation or provide refugia for populations of marine calcifiers in a future, acidifying ocean.
One of the multiple capabilities of the new Joint Engineering, Environmental and Processing (JEEP) beamline I12 at Diamond Light Source is the set-up for polychromatic high-energy X-ray diffraction for the study of polycrystalline deformation and residual stresses. The results and interpretation of the first experiments carried out on JEEP are reported. Energy dispersive diffraction patterns from titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V were collected using the new 23-cell ‘horseshoe’ detector and interpreted using Pawley refinement to determine the residual elastic strains at the macro- and meso-scale. It provides a clear demonstration of the tensile-compressive hardening asymmetry of the hexagonal close-packed grains oriented with the basal plane perpendicular to the loading direction.
This paper gives an overview on the standard crystalline silicon solar cell
manufacturing processes typically applied in industry. Main focus has been
put on plasma processes which can replace existing, mainly wet chemical
processes within the standard process flow. Finally, additional plasma
processes are presented which are suited for higher-efficient solar cells,
i.e. for the “passivated emitter and rear cell” concept (PERC) or the
“heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer” approach (HIT). Plasma processes
for the deposition of thin dielectric or semiconducting layers for surface
passivation, emitter deposition or anti-reflective coating purposes are
presented. Plasma etching processes for the removal of phosphorus silicate
glass or parasitic emitters, for wafer cleaning and masked and mask-free
surface texturisation are discussed.
Congenital arteriovenous malformations are rare causes of congestive cardiac failure in neonates. The most common sites are in the head and liver, but other sites include the thorax, the abdomen and the limbs. The onset of failure is usually not in the immediate neonatal period, but later on in life, albeit that lesions such as the arteriovenous malformation of the vein of Galen, and other arteriovenous malformations in different locations which produce high flow can present early. We describe here the first case, to the best of our knowledge, of prenatal detection of an intrathoracic arteriovenous malformation producing neonatal cardiac failure, which was successfully treated by surgery postnatally.
Four matrix-phase crystallographic directions of IN718 are investigated by in situ tensile tests using neutron diffraction. The elastic diffraction constants for all directions measured are compared to theoretical values calculated by the Kröner model. The differences between the microscopic and the macroscopic material response are given. The accumulation of microstrains in the different crystallographic directions is discussed. A comparison between the results of a single phase material (ingot IN718) and two differently thermal treated multiphase materials is presented.
In the future, when the Internet of Things becomes reality, serialized data (typically RFID and/or barcode, based on EPCglobal, DOD/UID, and other standards) can potentially be stored in millions of data repositories worldwide. In fact, large data volumes of serialized information may be coming soon, as the global healthcare industry moves towards deploying anti-counterfeiting standards as soon as 2009. Such data will be sent to enterprise applications through the EPC network infrastructure. The data volume, message volume, communication, and applications with EPC network infrastructure will raise challenges to the scalability, security, extensibility, and communication of current IT infrastructure. Several architectures for EPC network infrastructure have been proposed. So far, most pilots have focused on the physical aspects of tag readings within a small network of companies. The lack of data quantifying the expected behavior of network message traffic within the future EPC network infrastructure is one of the obstacles inhibiting industry from moving to the next level. This chapter presents a simulator aimed at quantifying the message flows within various EPC network architectures in order to provide guidance for designing the architecture of a scalable and secure network.
RFID/EPC technology enables the tracking of physical objects through their lifecycles without direct human involvement. Through the wide range of initiatives, such as the one with retail giants (Wal-Mart and Target), and those with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), numerous state boards of pharmacy, aerospace companies (Airbus and Boeing), and the Department of Defense (DoD), RFID/EPC/UID has demonstrated its great value for business operation automation.
We present a method which allows to calculate gas sorption in complex polymers where, as slow processes, gas induced plasticization and volume dilation are important factors. Since the relaxational swelling of the polymer matrix that is observed at elevated gas concentrations takes hours or days, the swelling process is orders of magnitudes too slow to simulate the respective molecular dynamics in reasonable time and effort. To address this apparent incompatibility of experiment and simulation, we use single representative reference states from experiment and construct atomistic packing models according to these specifications. Gas sorption of CO2 and CH4 was successfully calculated on polysulfone, a 6FDA-polyimide, and a polymer of intrinsic microporosity, PIM-1, at 308 K and pressures up to 50 bar.
We present the adaptive optics assisted, near-infrared VLTI instrument GRAVITY for precision narrow-angle astrometry and interferometric phase referenced imaging of faint objects. With its two fibers per telescope beam, its internal wavefront sensors and fringe tracker, and a novel metrology concept, GRAVITY will not only push the sensitivity far beyond what is offered today, but will also advance the astrometric accuracy for UTs to 10 μas. GRAVITY is designed to work with four telescopes, thus providing phase referenced imaging and astrometry for 6 baselines simultaneously. Its unique capabilities and sensitivity will open a new window for the observation of a wide range of objects, and — amongst others — will allow the study of motion within a few times the event horizon size of the Galactic Center black hole.
The literature contains considerable disagreements on the relative stabilities of the members of the copper hydroxyl sulphate family. Titration of copper sulphate with sodium hydroxide is claimed by some to produce only brochantite, while other reports indicate that antlerite and a dihydrate of antlerite are produced in the titration. Most stability field diagrams show that antlerite is the more stable stoichiomer at pH 4 and sulphate activity of 0.05–1. We have reexamined this stoichiometric family by titration of aqueous copper sulphate with sodiumhydroxide and sodium carbonate, reverse titration of sodiumhydroxide with copper sulphate and simultaneous addition of copper sulphate and sodium hydroxide at a variety of mole ratios, concentrations, temperatures and reaction times. We have also explored the reaction of copper hydroxide with copper sulphate and the reaction of weak bases, such as sodiumacetate, sodiumcarbonate and urea, with copper sulphate. Our work indicates that: (1) antlerite is not formed in reactions of 0.05 to 1.2 M CuSO4 with 0.05–1.0 M NaOH or Na2CO3 at room temperature; (2) antlerite is formed in the addition of small concentrations of base (≤0.01 M) to 1 M CuSO4 at 80°C, but not at roomtem perature or with 0.01 M CuSO4 at 80°C; (3) the formation of Cu5(SO4)2(OH)6·4H2O occurs at large Cu2+ to base mole ratios; (4) the compound described in the literature as antlerite dihydrate is actually Cu5(SO4)2(OH)6.4H2O; (5) at mole ratios of Cu2+ to OH– ranging from 2:1 to 1:2 the predominant product is brochantite; and (6) brochantite and Cu5(SO4)2(OH)6.4H2O are converted to antlerite in the presence of 1 M CuSO4 (the latter requires temperatures of 80°C or greater).
The Ksp (ion activity product) values of antlerite and brochantite were determined to be 2.53 (0.01)⨯10−48 and 1.01 (0.01)⨯10−69, respectively, using atomic absorption spectroscopy and Visual MINTEQ after equilibration in solutions of varying ionic strength and pH for six days. These values are in good agreement with those from the literature. However, after 6 months, antlerite in contact with solution is partially converted to brochantite and hence is metastable with a relatively low conversion rate. The Ksp value for antlerite must therefore be considered approximate. The relative stabilities of the copper hydroxyl sulphates are rationalized using appropriate equations and Gibbs energy calculations. A Gibbs free energy of formation for Cu5(SO4)2(OH)6.4H2O of –3442 kJ/mol was obtained from the simple salt approximation.