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Several established models in human and veterinary medicine exist to evaluate an individual health or disease status. Many of these seem unsuitable for further epidemiological research aimed at discovering underlying influential factors. As a case example for score development and choice, the present study analyses different approaches to scoring the foot health of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) living in European facilities. Sum scores with varying degree of detail, and without or with a weighting method, were compared using descriptive statistics, ie kurtosis, skewness, Shannon entropy, total redundancy, their maximum and their actual ranges. With increasing score complexity, a higher level of differentiation was reached. In parallel, the distribution of score frequencies in the population shifted systematically: with the least complex scoring model the pattern indicated a severely unhealthy population with an opposite skew to a hypothetically healthy population, whereas the most complex scoring model indicated a mildly affected population with a skew corresponding to that expected for a healthy population. We propose the latter, in the form of the Particularised Severity Score (ParSev), which accounts for every nail and pad individually and weights the sub-scores by squaring, as the most relevant score for further investigations, either in assessing changes within an elephant population over time, or correlating foot health in epidemiological studies to potentially influencing factors. Our results emphasise the relevance of choosing appropriate scoring models for welfare-associated evaluations, due to implications for the applicability as well as the perceived welfare status of the test population.
The surface radiation budget was continuously measured in the sea-ice zone between 140° E (Terre Adélie) and 180° (McMurdo Sound) close to mid-summer, when the sea ice is disintegrating. These measurements were carried out during a cruise of the USCGC Polar Sea from Hobart, Tasmania, to McMurdo station, Antarctica, in 1998/99. Some of the findings are: the solar radiation is the major atmospheric energy source for the melting of ice. The sun was above the horizon for 24 h for most of the cruise. Due to a high amount of fractional cloudiness, the global radiation was somewhat reduced when compared to areas with lesser cloud cover Mean noon values were around 400 W m−2, while at midnight a value of 30 W m−2 was measured. Daily mean values of the net shortwave radiation varied widely, a function of the reflectivity of the surface, which is strongly dependent not only on the ice concentration, but also on the ice type (e.g. whether it is covered with snow, flooded, melting or dry). Detailed ice observations were carried out. Hourly values of the albedo varied from 6% (open water) to 84% (10/10 sea ice with a dry snow cover). The mean net longwave radiation was only modestly negative. The high amount of fractional cloud cover increased the longwave incoming radiation from the atmosphere. A mean value of −40 W m−2 was measured, which displayed only a very weak diurnal course. The sum of the short- and longwave radiation, the total radiation budget, showed the expected diurnal variation, with slightly negative values at night (for 6 h), and a mean maximum at solar noon of around 220 W m−2. A mean daily value of 98 W m−2 was calculated.
Communication disorders represent a major and growing problem worldwide. In Europe, the specialty of phoniatrics has developed partly in response to this important issue. This article reviews training and workforce issues in phoniatrics and raises key questions and issues that need resolution in the future.
>100> -semiinsulating InP was implanted with 600 keV Se-ions at temperatures between 300K and 425K with an ion dose of 1 ×1014 cm−2. After capping the samples with about 120 nm siliconoxynitride annealing was performed at 700°C up to 975°C using a graphite strip heater system. The annealed samples were analyzed with Rutherford backscattering, electron microscopy and conventional Hall measurements. The results show, that a strong correlation exists between defects remaining after annealing (for instance dislocations, loops, microtwins) and the measured electrical properties. An implantation temperature ≦ 395K and annealing at least at 800°C for 50 s is necessary to obtain high performance electrically active layers. The activation of selenium in InP can be well described using a simple thermodynamical model. The model yields an activation energy of EA = (1.0 ± 0. 1) eV which can be understood as the energy necessary to split-up selenium-vacancy-complexes and a diffusion energy of Ed = (2.0 ± 0.2) eV representing material transport of the semiconductor material.
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