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Geography is not only the study of the surface of the planet and the exploration of spatial and human - environment relationships, but also a way of thinking about the world. Guided by the Australian Curriculum and the Professional Standards for Teaching School Geography (GEOGstandards), Teaching Secondary Geography provides a comprehensive introduction to both the theory and practice of teaching Geography. This text covers fundamental geographical knowledge and skills, such as working with data, graphicacy, fieldwork and spatial technology, and provides practical guidance on teaching them in the classroom. Each chapter features short-answer and 'Pause and Think' questions to enhance understanding of key concepts, and 'Bringing It Together' review questions to consolidate learning. Classroom scenarios and a range of information boxes are provided throughout to connect students to additional material. Written by an author team with extensive teaching experience, Teaching Secondary Geography is an exemplary resource for pre-service teachers.
Studying phenotypic and genetic characteristics of age at onset (AAO) and polarity at onset (PAO) in bipolar disorder can provide new insights into disease pathology and facilitate the development of screening tools.
To examine the genetic architecture of AAO and PAO and their association with bipolar disorder disease characteristics.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and polygenic score (PGS) analyses of AAO (n = 12 977) and PAO (n = 6773) were conducted in patients with bipolar disorder from 34 cohorts and a replication sample (n = 2237). The association of onset with disease characteristics was investigated in two of these cohorts.
Earlier AAO was associated with a higher probability of psychotic symptoms, suicidality, lower educational attainment, not living together and fewer episodes. Depressive onset correlated with suicidality and manic onset correlated with delusions and manic episodes. Systematic differences in AAO between cohorts and continents of origin were observed. This was also reflected in single-nucleotide variant-based heritability estimates, with higher heritabilities for stricter onset definitions. Increased PGS for autism spectrum disorder (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), major depression (β = −0.34 years, s.e. = 0.08), schizophrenia (β = −0.39 years, s.e. = 0.08), and educational attainment (β = −0.31 years, s.e. = 0.08) were associated with an earlier AAO. The AAO GWAS identified one significant locus, but this finding did not replicate. Neither GWAS nor PGS analyses yielded significant associations with PAO.
AAO and PAO are associated with indicators of bipolar disorder severity. Individuals with an earlier onset show an increased polygenic liability for a broad spectrum of psychiatric traits. Systematic differences in AAO across cohorts, continents and phenotype definitions introduce significant heterogeneity, affecting analyses.
Psychosis is a major mental illness with first onset in young adults. The prognosis is poor in around half of the people affected, and difficult to predict. The few tools available to predict prognosis have major weaknesses which limit their use in clinical practice. We aimed to develop and validate a risk prediction model of symptom non-remission in first-episode psychosis.
Our development cohort consisted of 1027 patients with first-episode psychosis recruited between 2005 to 2010 from 14 early intervention services across the National Health Service in England. Our validation cohort consisted of 399 patients with first-episode psychosis recruited between 2006 to 2009 from a further 11 English early intervention services. The one-year non-remission rate was 52% and 54% in the development and validation cohorts, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop a risk prediction model for non-remission, which was externally validated.
The prediction model showed good discrimination (C-statistic of 0.74 (0.72, 0.76) and adequate calibration with intercept alpha of 0.13 (0.03, 0.23) and slope beta of 0.99 (0.87, 1.12). Our model improved the net-benefit by 16% at a risk threshold of 50%, equivalent to 16 more detected non-remitted first-episode psychosis individuals per 100 without incorrectly classifying remitted cases.
Once prospectively validated, our first episode psychosis prediction model could help identify patients at increased risk of non-remission at initial clinical contact.
The evolution of Peter Maxwell Davies's ‘harmonic, rhythmic and formal/ architectural thinking’ is clearly articulated in an article that the composer wrote in April 2015. In it, he declares that, in the 1950s, upon reading a number of analytical writings by various commentators, he found those by ‘Ratz and Schenker much more liberating than […] analyses by Messiaen and Boulez; the former drove home the indivisibility and interdependence of all musical parameters, long and short term’. Later, whilst studying with Goffredo Petrassi in Rome in 1957–8, he explains that he was encouraged to read the theoretical writings of Schoenberg and in particular Luigi Rognoni's Espressionismo e dodecafonia, ‘which profoundly influenced my understanding of form and architecture forever’, leading him ‘to think anew […] with more insight than previously about the works that I believed I knew’. He then proceeds to offer several examples of this new understanding, including J. S. Bach's Invention in E minor, BMV 778 – ‘whose “form”, academically perceived, is obvious, but whose architecture is an expression of the Holy Trinity’ – and Beethoven‘s Eroica Symphony:
The first movement is obviously in sonata form, with a coda, but the first subject is only stated completely – its destiny fulfilled – in that coda, its whole course being determined by the (still always surprising!) C♯ in bar 7. The ‘form’ is one thing, the ‘architecture’ a complete different matter, and they create huge tensions between them. Similarly, the finale is a set of variations, but the ‘theme’ is hardly a theme as such, but the widely-spaced notes delineate a tonal space, or rather, a sequence of holes, between the tonic E♭ and the dominant B♭, which is gradually filled in as the ‘variations’ progress […] – with the ‘Prometheus’ melody along the way – once again to achieve its fulfilment and apotheosis at the movement's close.