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To examine the association between red/processed meat consumption and glycaemic conditions (i.e. prediabetes (preDM) and diabetes mellitus (DM)) among middle-aged residents in rural Khánh Hòa, Vietnam.
In this cross-sectional study, a multinomial logistic regression model was used to examine the association between daily consumption of red/processed meat (0–99 g, 100–199 g or ≥ 200 g) and preDM/DM with adjustments for socio-demographic, lifestyle-related and health-related variables.
Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam
The study used data collected through a baseline survey conducted during a prospective cohort study on CVD among 3000 residents, aged 40–60 years, living in rural communes in Khánh Hòa Province.
The multinomial regression model revealed that the relative-risk ratios for DM were 1·00 (reference), 1·11 (95 % CI = 0·75, 1·62) and 1·80 (95 % CI = 1·40, 2·32) from the lowest to the highest red/processed meat consumption categories (Ptrend = 0·006). The corresponding values for preDM were 1·00 (reference), 1·25 (95 % CI = 1·01, 1·54) and 1·67 (95 % CI = 1·20, 2·33) (Ptrend = 0·004). We did not find any evidence of statistical significance in relation to poultry consumption.
Increased red/processed meat consumption, but not poultry consumption, was positively associated with the prevalence of preDM/DM in rural communes in Khánh Hòa Province, Vietnam. Dietary recommendations involving a reduction in red/processed meat consumption should be considered in low- and middle-income countries.
In this chapter, we have introduced existing solutions in the literature aiming to improve the performance of ambient backscatter communication systems (ABCSs). We have first provided the reviews on several multiple access schemes that allows multiple transmitters backscatter data to the receiver. Then, solutions focusing on improving the communication range, bitrate, reliability, and robustness are presented in details. Finally, we have discussed challenges and future research directions to further improve the performance of ABCSs.
In this chapter, we have provided an overview of ambient backscatter communication systems. Firstly, we have introduced the fundamentals of modulated backscatter and its three main configurations, i.e., monostatic, bistatic, and ambient backscatter communication systems. Then, key channel-coding and modulation techniques in modulated backscatter communication systems are discussed. Two major types of backscatter communication channels and their link budgets are also introduced. Next, theoretical analyses and experimental measurements of backscatter channels are reviewed. Finally, we have discussed some research challenges of backscatter communication systems, especially ambient backscatter communication systems.
This chapter discussed open issues and potential research directions for future developemnt of ambient backscatter communication. Many emerging research directions are presented in this chapter such as full-duplex ambient backscatter, ultra-wideband backscatter, visible-light backscactter, and millimeter-wave backscatter.
The performance analysis for ambient backscatter communication systems is fundamentally different from that of traditional communication systems. The carrier signal of backscatter communication is opportunistically exploited from the existing active radio-frequency communication systems. As it is vulnerable to channel variations, different detection and encoding mechanisms have been proposed and analyzed to improve the system throughput or ergodic capacity. In this chapter, we have focused on the analysis of signal detection and bit-error rate (BER) performance for backscatter communication. We have reviewed the different system models for backscatter communication systems and various signal detection approaches under different resource and physical constraints.
In this chapter, we have introduced the fundamentals of self-sustaining wireless communication networks. We have first provided the overviews of conventional energy harvesting networks, i.e., wireless-powered transfer, wireless-powered communication network, and simultaneous wireless information and power transfer, as well as their applications in the literature. Then, we have introduced ambient backscatter communications in terms of architecture, design, advantages, and limitations. Finally, we have discussed potential applications and implementation of ambient backscatter communication system networks such as smart world, biomedical, and logistics.
In this chapter, we first give a brief overview about the development of cognitive radio networks (CRNs), from traditional CRNs to the recent development of wireless energy harvesting for CRNs. Then, we discuss how to integrate ambient backscatter communication techniques to radio-frequency (RF)-powered CRNs, and present two fundamental models for this integration. After that, we discuss recent advanced models of RF-powered CRNs with ambient backscatter communication with more details about system design, communication protocols, and performance optimization problems. Finally, some open issues for the development of RF-powered backscatter CRNs are presented.
Wireless backscatter shares some similarity with the radio-frequency (RF)-powered wireless communications. This motivates the design of a hybrid radio that can operate in either active RF communications or backscatter communications. The flexibility in the radio’s mode switching provides an additional degree of freedom to improve the overall network performance. In this chapter, we first review cooperative transmission strategies in conventional RF-powered wireless communicationsystems and then discuss the feasibility of cooperative relay transmission via backscatter communication. We propose the passive relaying scheme that leverages the backscatter radios to act as passive relays and assist the RF communications. The passive relays backscatter the RF signals from the source to the receiver which, by experiments, shows to improve the transmission rate due to the enhanced multi-path diversity gain.
In this chapter, we discuss various circuit and antenna design issues for implementing ambient backscatter transmitters and receivers. First, we provide an overview of antenna which is crucial for ambient backscatter communication systems (ABCSs) to receive and backscatter signals. Then, ambient backscatter transmitter circuits including modulators, energy harvesters, and micro-controllers is discussed. Following this, we discuss ambient backscatter receiver circuits including interference cancelers, diversity combiners, and maximum-likelihood (ML) detectors. Finally, some open issues for realizing low-power and hyper-connectivity vision in the Fourth Industrial Revolution era are described.
In this chapter, we first introduce the motivation of using RF energy harvesting for wireless-powered communication networks (WPCNs). We then present how ambient backscatter technology can be integrated and improve the performance of WPCNs. After that, an extensive performance analysis for the integration of ambient backscatter communication to a WPCN is studied. Finally, some open issues for WPCNs with ambient backscatter communications are discussed.
In this chapter, we introduce power management issues for ambient backscatter communication systems (ABCSs). We first present the reduction of power consumption for backscatter communication in components perspective. Then, typical prototypes and circuit designs of ABCSs are presented. After presenting protocols and strategies for ambient backscatter communication in radio-frequency-powered cognitive radio networks and wireless-powered communication networks, we discuss two representative backscatter communication protocols: hybrid backscatter communication and backscatter-based cooperative communication in wireless-powered heterogeneous networks. Finally, challenges and future research directions are given with concluding remarks.
Understand the fundamental principles and applications of ambient backscatter technology with this authoritative review. Covering both theory and practical engineering, leading researchers describe and explain hardware design, network design, and signal processing, and discuss architectures, protocols, communication methods, open research issues, emerging applications, and advanced system models with innovative solutions. This is an essential tool for graduate students, researchers, engineers, developers, and entrepreneurs.