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In 2018, the Alliance for Open Media (AOMedia) finalized its first video compression format AV1, which is jointly developed by the industry consortium of leading video technology companies. The main goal of AV1 is to provide an open source and royalty-free video coding format that substantially outperforms state-of-the-art codecs available on the market in compression efficiency while remaining practical decoding complexity as well as being optimized for hardware feasibility and scalability on modern devices. To give detailed insights into how the targeted performance and feasibility is realized, this paper provides a technical overview of key coding techniques in AV1. Besides, the coding performance gains are validated by video compression tests performed with the libaom AV1 encoder against the libvpx VP9 encoder. Preliminary comparison with two leading HEVC encoders, x265 and HM, and the reference software of VVC is also conducted on AOM's common test set and an open 4k set.
We aimed to critically evaluate decision aids developed for practitioners and caregivers when providing care for someone with dementia or for use by people with dementia themselves. Decision aids may be videos, booklets, or web-based tools that explicitly state the decision, provide information about the decision, and summarize options along with associated benefits and harms. This helps guide the decision maker through clarifying the values they place on the benefits or harms of the options.
We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed literature in electronic databases (CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychINFO) in March 2018. Reference lists were searched for relevant papers and citations tracked. Data were synthesized with meta-analysis and narrative synthesis. Papers were included if they met the following criteria: 1) the focus of the paper was on the evaluation of a decision aid; 2) the decision aid was used in dementia care; and 3) the decision aid was aimed at professionals, people with dementia, or caregivers.
We identified 3618 studies, and 10 studies were included, covering three topics across six decision aids: 1) support with eating/feeding options, 2) place of care, and 3) goals of care. The mode of delivery and format of the decision aids varied and included paper-based, video-based, and audio-based decision aids. The decision aids were shown to be effective, increasing knowledge and the quality of communication. The meta-analysis demonstrated that decisions are effective in reducing decisional conflict among caregivers (standardized mean difference = −0.50, 95% confidence interval [ − 0.97, − 0.02]).
Decision aids offer a promising approach for providing support for decision-making in dementia care. People are often faced with more than one decision, and decisions are often interrelated. The decision aids identified in this review focus on single topics. There is a need for decision aids that cover multiple topics in one aid to reflect this complexity and better support caregivers.
Palliative care and the hospice movement were founded as a response to people dying from cancer . However, there is now wide recognition that palliative care should be provided and made available for people with a range of progressive advanced chronic diseases including dementia, frailty and organ failure. This is particularly pertinent as the population ages and a growing number of people are dying with these conditions. This chapter defines palliative care and the role of the psychiatrist, and examines some current issues in palliative care including having difficult conversations, dealing with uncertainty, symptom control and supporting grieving family and friends both before and after death, with a focus on the needs of those with dementia.
We investigate the old open cluster M67 using ultraviolet photometric data of Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope in multi-filter far-UV bands. M67, well known for the presence of several blue straggler stars (BSS), has been put to detailed tests to understand their formation pathways. Currently, there are three accepted formation channels: mass transfer due to Roche-lobe overflow in binary systems, stellar mergers either due to dynamical collisions or through coalescence of close binaries. So far, there had not been any confirmed detection of a white dwarf (WD) companion to any of the BSSs in this cluster. Here, we present the detection of WD companions to 5 bright BSSs in M67. The multiwavelength spectral energy distributions covering 0.12 -11.5 μm range, were found to require binary spectral fits for 5 BSSs, consisting of a cool (BSS) and a hot companion. The parameters (Luminosity, Temperature, Radius and Mass) of the hot companions suggest them to be WDs with mass in the range 0.2 - 0.35 M⊙ with Teff ~11000 –24000 K.
To (i) systematically identify and review strategies employed by community dwelling lonely older people to manage their loneliness and (ii) develop a model for managing loneliness.
A narrative synthesis review of English-language qualitative evidence, following Economic and Social Research Council guidance. Seven electronic databases were searched (1990–January 2017). The narrative synthesis included tabulation, thematic analysis, and conceptual model development. All co-authors assessed eligibility of final papers and reached a consensus on analytic themes.
From 3,043 records, 11 studies were eligible including a total of 502 older people. Strategies employed to manage loneliness can be described by a model with two overarching dimensions, one related to the context of coping (alone or with/in reference to others), the other related to strategy type (prevention/action or acceptance/endurance of loneliness). The dynamic and subjective nature of loneliness is reflected in the variety of coping mechanisms, drawing on individual coping styles and highlighting considerable efforts in managing time, contacting others, and keeping loneliness hidden. Cognitive strategies were used to re-frame negative feelings, to make them more manageable or to shift the focus from the present or themselves. Few unsuccessful strategies were described.
Strategies to manage loneliness vary from prevention/action through to acceptance and endurance. There are distinct preferences to cope alone or involve others; only those in the latter category are likely to engage with services and social activities. Older people who deal with their loneliness privately may find it difficult to articulate an inability to cope.
The market can produce skewed information about investigational products awaiting FDA approval. But the FDA rarely steps in to correct such misleading information, despite statutory authority to do so. This article evaluates a recommendation by the FDA Transparency Working Group that FDA more clearly signal when and how it will correct misleading information about investigational products, and why such a recommendation is particularly important after the 21st Century Cures Act.
We believe that Hyland, Lee, and Mills (2015) introduced important considerations concerning the importance of mindfulness for research and practice in industrial and organizational (I-O) psychology, and we applaud their effort. We also feel that some equally important points were neglected or given scant attention. We amplify their introduction in three ways. We discuss (a) how construct confusion is common when new constructs are introduced and how paying attention to the type of meditation practice used to induce mindfulness will enhance construct clarity, (b) how using forms of meditation that employ physical movement and other activities to induce mindfulness expand the choices for intervention and training, and (c) how meditation and mindfulness provide a valuable bridge linking positive psychology and I-O psychology theory and practice.
Despite the current global decline in seagrass, sessile epifaunal invertebrates inhabiting seagrass ecosystems, particularly sponges and ascidians, have been poorly studied due to their taxonomic complexity. Understanding patterns of distribution of sessile epifaunal communities in seagrass meadows is an important precursor to determining the processes driving their distribution and species interactions. This study (1) identified the sponge and ascidian assemblage associated with Posidonia australis meadows and (2) determined distributional patterns of these invertebrates at a hierarchy of spatial scales in Jervis Bay, Australia. We used a fully nested design with transects distributed in the seagrass (10s m apart), two sites (100s m apart), and six locations (km apart). Within these transects, we recorded the abundance, volume, diversity and substratum used for attachment by sponges and ascidians. We encountered 20 sponge species and eight ascidian species; they were sporadically distributed in the seagrass meadows with high variability among the transects, sites and locations. A few sponge and ascidian species dominated the assemblage and were widespread across the largest spatial scale sampled. The remaining species were mostly rare and sparsely distributed. Sponges attached to a variety of substrata but most notably shells, P. australis and polychaete tubes. No obligate seagrass species were recorded although three species predominantly used P. australis as a substratum. These sponge species relying heavily on seagrass for their attachment are likely prone to disturbances impacting their host habitat. Examining the response of sessile epifauna to the degradation of their seagrass habitat remains a key challenge for the future.
To synthesize information about management of end of life care in people with dementia using review papers.
There are increasing numbers of people being diagnosed with dementia worldwide, and the needs of people with dementia and their carers at the end of life may be different from those with other chronic diseases. By highlighting the challenges of palliative care in persons with dementia and the ways they are best managed, practitioners in primary care may be able to improve services for this group of people at the end of life.
A search of electronic databases of English language papers published in peer-reviewed journals, 2000–2011 inclusive was undertaken using broad terms related to palliative care and dementia. 6167 papers were identified. Titles and abstracts were read. Papers were included if they were literature reviews of palliative or end of life care for people with dementia/Parkinson's disease/Lewy body dementia/cognitive impairment/Alzheimer's disease or any other cognitive impairment, in any setting (hospital, care home, community) and covering people of all ages. Papers were excluded if they covered palliative care focusing on other conditions, or were about an aspect of dementia care and treatment not related to palliative care.
Our critical synthesis generated five main themes from this review of the reviews: (1) carers’ (family caregivers’) experiences; (2) person-centred care; (3) practice (including advance care planning, pain and comfort, nutrition, medical complications and minimizing the distress of behavioural symptoms); (4) system factors, including ethical dilemmas, decision making, information, and training; and (5) research priorities. There appears to be good evidence on the care and management of patients with dementia at the end of life which can be used to influence policy development and emerging specificity about research priorities in palliative care practice for people with dementia.
Episodic memory deficits are a core feature of neurodegenerative disorders. Muscarinic M1 receptors play a critical role in modulating learning and memory and are highly expressed in the hippocampus. We examined the effect of GSK1034702, a potent M1 receptor allosteric agonist, on cognitive function, and in particular episodic memory, in healthy smokers using the nicotine abstinence model of cognitive dysfunction. The study utilized a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design in which 20 male nicotine abstained smokers were tested following single doses of placebo, 4 and 8 mg GSK1034702. Compared to the baseline (nicotine on-state), nicotine abstinence showed statistical significance in reducing immediate (p=0.019) and delayed (p=0.02) recall. GSK1034702 (8 mg) significantly attenuated (i.e. improved) immediate recall (p=0.014) but not delayed recall. None of the other cognitive domains was modulated by either nicotine abstinence or GSK1034702. These findings suggest that stimulating M1 receptor mediated neurotransmission in humans with GSK1034702 improves memory encoding potentially by modulating hippocampal function. Hence, selective M1 receptor allosteric agonists may have therapeutic benefits in disorders of impaired learning including Alzheimer's disease.
A system to grow heteroepitaxial thin-films of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) cathodes on single crystal substrates was developed. The cathode composition investigated was 20% strontium-doped lanthanum manganite (LSM) grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) on single crystal (111) yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. By combining electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray absorption spectroscopy XAS measurements, we conclude that electrically driven cation migration away from the two-phase gas-cathode interface results in improved electrochemical performance. Our results provide support to the premise that the removal of surface passivating phases containing Sr2+ and Mn2+, which readily form at elevated temperatures even in O2 atmospheric pressures, is responsible for the improved cathodic performance upon application of a bias.
Carbon nanoclusters produced by high-repetition-rate laser ablation of graphite and glassy carbon in Ar exhibits para- and ferromagnetic behaviour at low temperature. The results show that the degree of remanent order is strongly dependent on the magnetic history, i.e. whether the samples were cooled under zero-field or field conditions. Such behaviour is typical for a spin glass structure where the system can exist in many different roughly equivalent spin configurations. The spin-freezing temperature is unusually high (50–300 K) compared with ≤ 15 K for typical spin glasses. The maximum in the zero-field magnetic susceptibility experiments and their field dependence indicate that there is competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic exchange pathways, accounting for the spin glass behavior and/or a low-dimensionality of the system.
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