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The northern lobe of the White River Ash (WRAn) is part of a bilobate distribution of tephras that originated from the Wrangell Volcanic Field near the border of Alaska, USA, and Yukon, Canada. It is distributed across northeastern Alaska and the northwestern portion of the Yukon. The timing of this eruption has seen little critical analysis relative to the younger and more extensive eastern lobe eruption of the White River Ash. We compiled 38 radiocarbon (14C) dates from above and below the WRAn, and employed several statistical approaches to identify and eliminate or down-weight outliers, combine dates, and different Bayesian models, to provide a revised age estimate for the timing of the WRAn tephra deposition. Our results indicate that the most accurate modeled age estimate for the northern lobe of the White River Ash deposition is between 1689 and 1560 cal BP, with a mean and median of 1625 and 1623 cal BP, respectively. This age range is 90 to 200 years younger than previous age estimates.
To obtain patient-generated data relating to the management of their chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Primary Care before hospitalisation with exacerbation.
Previous audits of COPD have shown high rates of hospital admission and readmission. There is significant interest in understanding the reasons so that useful preventative strategies may be developed. As part of the 2008 UK COPD audit, which comprised 9716 cases of COPD admission across 97% of acute units, we obtained a sample of patient-generated data to assess understanding of COPD, use of healthcare resources, access to care and self-management in Primary Care prior to hospitalisation with exacerbation. We anticipated the data would provide useful insight for directing improvement strategies.
A paper-based, anonymised survey was completed by patients identified as having exacerbation by participating hospital teams. Response rate was an estimated 46%.
Understanding and awareness of COPD was very variable. Patients noticed symptoms of COPD exacerbation, particularly change in sputum, for some time prior to hospitalisation but tended not to react promptly to these changes. A minority had self-care plans, many bypassed Primary Care Services and there was variable access to a named health professional or advice. Patients using home oxygen and nebulisers were at particular risk of admission.
We conclude these sick patients use a lot of resources and the data suggest a need to support and educate them in the proactive management of exacerbation. There needs to be better ‘exacerbation planning’ so patients know how to recognise and treat flare-up but also whom to contact in the event of decline. Targetted support should be considered for the most vulnerable, particularly those using home oxygen and nebulisers, who have very high rates of hospitalisation.
Fostering shame in societies may not curb violence, because shame is alienating. The person experiencing shame may not care enough about others to curb violent instincts. Furthermore, men may be less shame-prone than are women. Finally, if shame is too prevalent in a society, perpetrators may be reluctant to talk about their actions and motives, if indeed they know their own motives. We may be unable accurately to discover how perpetrators think about their own violence.
the construct for affiliation in depue & morrone-strupinsky's (d&m-s's) study is restricted to the interpersonal domain. this restriction is not found in other disciplines. it may be necessary in early stages of trait research. but the construct will need to be expanded to speak to the more complex, second-order affiliations of which humans are capable.
This essay examines the relationship between nonviolence and trustworthiness. I focus on questions of accountability for people in midlevel positions of power, where multiple loyalties and responsibilities create conflicts and where policies can push people into actions that reinstate hegemonic relations. A case study from crisis counseling is presented in which the (mis) management of the case exacerbated previous violence done to a biracial female. The importance of resistance to dominant ideology is scrutinized.
I discuss pedagogical issues that concern incest survivors. As teachers, we need to understand the ways in which the legacy of incest variously affects survivors' educational experiences and to be aware that the interplay of trust, knowledge, and power may be particularly complex for survivors. I emphasize the responsibility teachers have to create classrooms that are inclusive of survivors, while raising concerns about the practice of personal disclosure and assumptions about trust and safety in the classroom.
This paper examines the major trends since the 1950s in social science writing on forest management in Southeast Asia. Southeast Asia is simultaneously rich in and dependent on natural resources, both for local and national use or sale. Among renewable resources, forest products have played critical roles in the region's national, provincial, and local economies before, during, and after colonialism — for as long as two millennia. Their importance in international trade illustrates that Southeast Asia's forests linked the region to other parts of the world for quite some time, dispelling myths that parts of the region such as Borneo were “remote”, “primitive”, or “pristine”.
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