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As many as 70% of intensive care unit (ICU) survivors suffer from long-term physical, cognitive, and psychological impairments known as post-intensive care syndrome (PICS). We describe how the first ICU survivor clinic in the United States, the Critical Care Recovery Center (CCRC), was designed to address PICS using the principles of Agile Implementation (AI).
The CCRC was designed using an eight-step process known as the AI Science Playbook. Patients who required mechanical ventilation or were delirious ≥48 hours during their ICU stay were enrolled in the CCRC. One hundred twenty subjects who completed baseline HABC-M CG assessments and had demographics collected were included in the analysis to identify baseline characteristics that correlated with higher HABC-M CG scores. A subset of patients and caregivers also participated in focus group interviews to describe their perceptions of PICS.
Quantitative analyses showed that the cognitive impairment was a major concern of caregivers. Focus group data also confirmed that caregivers of ICU survivors (n = 8) were more likely to perceive cognitive and mental health symptoms than ICU survivors (n = 10). Caregivers also described a need for ongoing psychoeducation about PICS, particularly cognitive and mental health symptoms, and for ongoing support from other caregivers with similar experiences.
Our study demonstrated how the AI Science Playbook was used to build the first ICU survivor clinic in the United States. Caregivers of ICU survivors continue to struggle with PICS, particularly cognitive impairment, months to years after discharge. Future studies will need to examine whether the CCRC model of care can be adapted to other complex patient populations seen by health-care professionals.
Refugees from Kosovo arrived in several Canadian cities after humanitarian evacuations in 1999. Approximately 500 arrived in Hamilton, Canada. Volunteer sponsors from community organizations assisted the families with settlement, which included providing them access to healthcare services.
Hypothesis/Problem: It was anticipated that women, in particular, would have unmet health needs relating to trauma and a lack of healthcare access after experiencing forced migration.
This study describes the results of a self-administered survey regarding women's health issues and experiences with health services after the arrival of refugees. It also describes the sponsor group's experience related to women's health care. The survey was administered to a random sample of 85 women refugees, and focus groups with 14 sponsors.Women self-completed questionnaires about their health, which included the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and use of preventive health services. Sponsor groups participated in a focus group discussing healthcare needs and experiences of their assigned refugee families. Themes pertaining to women's issues were identified from the focus groups.
Preventive screening rates were low, only 1/19 (5.3%) women ≥50- years-old had ever received a mammogram; 34.1% (28/82) had ever received a Pap test); and PTSD was prevalent (25.9%, 22/85). Sponsor groups identified challenges relating to prenatal care needs, finding family physicians, language barriers to health care services, cultural influences of women's healthcare decision-making, mental health concerns, and difficulties accessing dental care, eye care, and prescriptions.
Many women refugees from Kosovo had unmet health needs. Culturally appropriate population level screening campaigns and integration of language and interpretation services into the healthcare sector on a permanent basis are important policy actions to be adequately prepared for newcomers and women in displaced situations. These needs should be anticipated during the evacuation period by host countries to aid in planning the provision of health resources more efficiently for refugees and displaced people going to host countries.
One hundred and fifty middle-aged and elderly adults with a diagnosis of major depression were assessed initially as inpatients, and were reinterviewed 6–32 months later. Both size of social network and subjective social support were significant predictors of depressive symptoms at follow-up, with baseline depression scores and other predictors of outcome status statistically controlled. Subjective social support was most strongly associated with major depression; this effect was significantly stronger for middle-aged than older adults, and for men than women. Differences in the effects of marital status, size of social network, and subjective social support also suggest the importance of distinguishing between involvement in and quality of interpersonal relationships.
This paper presents an analysis of access to social and health services of elderly people at three community and social service centres (CLSCs) in Montreal. Workers at the CLSCs were interviewed about service accessibility for elderly people in their neighbourhood. The elderly clientele of one CLSC, located in the centre of Montreal, primarily consists of French-Canadians and English-Canadians; the second CLSC is in a neighbourhood with many elderly Portuguese and the third CLSC is in a neighbourhood where a large concentration of elderly Chinese people live. No problems of access to services were perceived for elderly French-Canadian, English-Canadian or Portuguese people while serious problems of access were perceived for elderly Chinese people. Services provided for elderly people of the dominant cultures and elderly Portuguese are limited or unavailable to elderly Chinese people of Montreal. This suggests institutional racism against elderly Chinese people.
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