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Herbicides are often used to terminate cover crops. Producers would like to use herbicides that work quickly, are effective, and do not increase the risk of selecting herbicide-resistant weeds. Eight experiments were conducted to determine whether mixing glyphosate (900 g a.e. ha−1) with rimsulfuron (15 g a.i. ha−1), mesotrione (100 g a.i. ha−1), or rimsulfuron + mesotrione enhances winter rye control and to ascertain whether using urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) as the herbicide carrier improves and accelerates herbicide efficacy. Winter rye control was assessed 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after application (WAA) and biomass was measured 4 WAA. The addition of rimsulfuron, mesotrione, or rimsulfuron + mesotrione to glyphosate did not enhance winter rye control. Similarly, using UAN as the herbicide carrier did not improve or accelerate herbicide efficacy. Glyphosate alone provided the greatest level of winter rye control. The addition of rimsulfuron, mesotrione, or rimsulfuron + mesotrione to glyphosate did not increase the level or speed of control. However, mixing glyphosate with rimsulfuron, mesotrione, or rimsulfuron + mesotrione adds other modes of action without compromising winter rye control.
Six field experiments were established in southwestern Ontario in 2021 and 2022 to evaluate if the addition of a grass herbicide (acetochlor, dimethenamid-p, flufenacet, pendimethalin, pyroxasulfone, or S-metolachlor) to tolpyralate + atrazine improves late-season weed control in corn. Tolpyralate + atrazine caused 12% and 5% corn injury at 1 and 4 weeks after herbicide application (WAA); corn injury was not increased with the addition of a grass herbicide. Weed inference reduced corn yield 60%. The addition of a grass herbicide to tolpyralate + atrazine did not enhance velvetleaf control. The addition of acetochlor or dimethenamid-p to tolpyralate + atrazine enhanced pigweed species control 4% 4 WAA; the addition of other grass herbicides tested did not increase pigweed species control. The addition of acetochlor enhanced common ragweed control 5% at 4 WAA and the addition of acetochlor or dimethenamid-p enhanced common ragweed control 8% at 8 WAA; the addition of other grass herbicides did not improve common ragweed control. The addition of acetochlor to tolpyralate + atrazine enhanced common lambsquarters control up to 4%; there was no enhancement in common lambsquarters control with the addition of the other grass herbicides. Tolpyralate + atrazine controlled barnyardgrass 90% and 78% at 4 and 8 WAA, respectively; the addition of a grass herbicide enhanced barnyardgrass control 9 to 10% and 21% at 4 and 8 WAA, respectively. Tolpyralate + atrazine controlled green or giant foxtail 80% and 69% at 4 and 8 WAA, respectively; the addition of a grass herbicide enhanced foxtail species control 15 to 19% and 24 to 29% at 4 and 8 WAA, respectively. This research shows that adding a grass herbicide to tolpyralate + atrazine mixture can improve weed control efficacy, especially increased annual grass control in corn production.
Waterhemp has evolved resistance to seven herbicide modes of action in the United States and to five in Canada, which limits weed control options for producers. The objective of this research was to quantify the level and duration of residual control of multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp with five Group 15 herbicides (acetochlor, dimethenamid-p, flufenacet, pyroxasulfone, and S-metolachlor) applied preemergence in a non-crop area. Four field trials were conducted over a 2-yr period (2021, 2022) in southwestern Ontario, Canada. By 4 wk after application (WAA) 91% of waterhemp had emerged in the nontreated control area. The numerical control of waterhemp with all Group 15 herbicides, with the exception of pyroxasulfone, was greatest at 4 WAA, then control declined. Flufenacet provided the lowest waterhemp control; dimethenamid-p and S-metolachlor provided intermediate control, and acetochlor and pyroxasulfone provided the highest control. Waterhemp control with pyroxasulfone peaked at 6 WAA with 99% and declined to 77% at 12 WAA. Flufenacet (low and high rates) was predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 50% for 42 to 44 d after application (DAA). Dimethenamid-p, S-metolachlor, and acetochlor (both formulations and three rates) were predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 80% for 36, 43, and 33 to 51 DAA, respectively; in contrast, pyroxasulfone was predicted to reduce waterhemp emergence by 80% for 82 DAA. This study concludes that of the Group 15 herbicides evaluated, flufenacet provides the lowest and shortest residual control of waterhemp, and pyroxasulfone provides the highest and longest residual control of waterhemp.
The development of glufosinate-resistant soybean cultivars has created opportunities for use of glufosinate applied postemergence for weed control. Four field experiments were conducted in 2021 and 2022 to ascertain the effect of glufosinate rate and the addition of ammonium sulfate on annual weed control in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D–resistant soybean. An increased glufosinate rate of 500 from 300 g ai ha−1 improved control of common ragweed, common lambsquarters, redroot pigweed, and foxtail species and resulted in decreased density and dry biomass of common lambsquarters and foxtail species. The addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate increased control of common lambsquarters, 2 and 8 wk after application (WAA), and of foxtail species, 2, 4, and 8 WAA, but did not improve control of common ragweed and redroot pigweed. Increasing the dose of glufosinate from 300 to 500 g ai ha−1 improves control of common ragweed, redroot pigweed, common lambsquarters, and foxtail species; however, the benefit of the addition of ammonium sulfate to glufosinate is weed species-specific.
Potato is the third most important staple food crop globally following rice and wheat. In the United States, potato is grown on approximately 410,000 ha with a farm-gate value of US$1,032 million. In Canada, potato is grown on approximately 134,000 ha with a farm-gate value of US$235 million. The objective of this manuscript, compiled by the Weed Science Society of America Weed Loss Committee, was to estimate potato yield loss caused by weed interference. Potato yield data from weedy and weed-free plots (or plots with >95% weed control) was obtained from researchers working on weed management in potato in the United States and Canada or from published manuscripts from 2000 to 2018. Potato yield loss from weed interference was 12% to 61% when no weed management tactics were implemented. The average yield loss for all states/provinces (where data was obtained) due to weed interference was 44%. Weed interference would cause a farm-gate loss of approximately US$465 million and US$61 in the United States and Canada, respectively, if weeds are not controlled. These results indicate that weed management is critical for successful potato production, and that an ongoing need for research exists on weed management in this crop.
The development of an integrated weed management (IWM) strategy for control of multiple herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp can provide field crop producers with a strategy to deplete the number of waterhemp seeds in the soil seedbank. Field experiments were established on two commercial farms in Ontario, Canada, with MHR waterhemp in 2017. The number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank at the Cottam and Walpole Island sites prior to establishing the experiments was 413 and 40 million seeds ha−1, respectively. The goal of this 9-yr study is to document the depletion in the number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank after Years 3, 6, and 9 (spring 2020, 2023, and 2026) and to identify management practices that can reduce the number of waterhemp seeds by 95% or more. Relative to the number of seeds in the soil seedbank when the experiment was initiated, at the Cottam site after 3 yr of this experiment, in the “control” treatment (continuous soybean seeded in rows spaced 75 apart, and sprayed with glyphosate) there was a numeric 31% increase in the number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank; in contrast, in the three-crop rotation of corn/soybean/winter wheat (with or without a cover crop after winter wheat harvest), soybean seeded in rows spaced 37.5 cm apart, with herbicide applications using a total of eight different herbicide modes of action resulted in a 65% to 66% decrease in the number of waterhemp seeds in the soil seedbank. At the Walpole Island site after 3 yr of this experiment, the number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank was not affected by the IWM programs evaluated. Results indicate that a diversified integrated waterhemp management program dramatically decreased the number of waterhemp seeds in the seedbank at one of two sites.
Glyphosate-resistant (GR) biotypes of horseweed were first confirmed in southern Ontario in 2010 and have spread across southern Ontario. A total of four field experiments were conducted between 2021 and 2022 to determine GR horseweed control with one- and two-pass herbicide programs in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D-resistant (GG2R) soybean. 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA, halauxifen-methyl, and saflufenacil applied preplant (PP) controlled GR horseweed by 59%, 72%, and 78% 8 wk after postemergence (POST) application (WAA-POST); there was no improvement of GR horseweed control when 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA was added to saflufenacil; in contrast, there was improved GR horseweed control when saflufenacil was added to 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA. Glufosinate and 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied POST controlled glyphosate-resistant horseweed by 71% and 86%, respectively, 8 WAA-POST. Two-pass herbicide programs of a PP followed by POST application provided greater GR horseweed control than a PP or POST herbicide applied alone. Glufosinate or 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied POST following 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA or halauxifen-methyl applied PP improved GR horseweed control by 29% to 38% and 24%, respectively at 8 WAA-POST. The application of 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied POST following saflufenacil applied PP improved control by 20% 8 WAA-POST; there was no improvement of GR horseweed control when glufosinate was applied POST following saflufenacil applied PP or when either POST herbicide was applied following saflufenacil + 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA applied PP. When used in a two-pass program, 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA POST provided 2% to 3% greater control of GR horseweed than glufosinate.
Waterhemp control in Ontario has increased in complexity due to the evolution of biotypes that are resistant to five herbicide modes of action (Groups 2, 5, 9, 14, and 27 as categorized by the Weed Science Society of America). Four field trials were carried out over a 2-yr period in 2021 and 2022 to assess the control of multiple-herbicide-resistant (MHR) waterhemp biotypes in glyphosate/glufosinate/2,4-D-resistant (GG2R) soybean using one- and two-pass herbicide programs. S-metolachlor/metribuzin, pyroxasulfone/sulfentrazone, pyroxasulfone/flumioxazin, and pyroxasulfone + metribuzin applied preemergence (PRE) controlled MHR waterhemp similarly by 46%, 63%, 60%, and 69%, respectively, at 8 wk after postemergence (POST) application (WAA-B). A one-pass application of 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA POST provided greater control of MHR waterhemp than glufosinate. Two-pass herbicide programs of a PRE herbicide followed by (fb) a POST-applied herbicide resulted in greater MHR waterhemp control compared to a single PRE or POST herbicide application. PRE herbicides fb glufosinate or 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA POST controlled MHR waterhemp by 74% to 91% and by 84% to 96%, respectively, at 8 WAA-B. Two-pass herbicide applications of an effective PRE residual herbicide fb 2,4-D choline/glyphosate DMA POST in GG2R soybean can effectively manage waterhemp that is resistant to herbicides in Groups 2, 5, 9, 14, and 27.
Weeds represent one of the most important biotic threats to agricultural plant health, and the potential global impact of weeds on crop yields is similar to that of all other pests (animal pests and pathogens) combined. Canola is the most-grown crop in Canada based on seeded area and generates on average Can$29.9 billion in economic activity each year. The objective of this report, sponsored by the Weed Science Society of America Weed Loss Committee, was to provide an updated estimate of potential yield and monetary losses due to weed interference in spring canola grown in Canada and the United States. Quantitative yield data from field experiments were provided by researchers and weed science professionals in the northern Great Plains region; the major canola-producing area of North America. Overall, 89 yield loss estimates were compiled, covering the 18-yr period from 2003 to 2020. Average canola yield losses due to weed interference in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, and North Dakota were 35%, 30%, 18%, and 28%, respectively. Potential yield losses weighted by canola harvested area averaged 30%, 28%, and 30% for Canada, the United States, and both countries combined, respectively. Therefore, unfettered weed interference in spring canola represents a potential monetary loss of Can$2.21 billion, $0.16 billion, and $2.37 billion for farmers in Canada, the United States, and both countries combined. The realization of such losses could manifest through continued selection for herbicide-resistant weeds, indicating the critical need for canola farmers to diversify resistance selection pressures by implementing proactive integrated weed management programs.
Limited information exists on the global economic impact of glyphosate-resistant (GR) weeds. The objective of this manuscript was to estimate the potential yield and economic loss from uncontrolled GR weeds in the major field crops grown in Ontario, Canada. The impact of GR weed interference on field crop yield was determined using an extensive database of field trials completed on commercial farms in southwestern Ontario between 2010 and 2021. Crop yield loss was estimated by expert opinion (weed scientists and Ontario government crop specialists) when research data were unavailable. This manuscript assumes that crop producers adjust their weed management programs to control GR weeds, which increases weed management costs but reduces crop yield loss from GR weed interference by 95%. GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed would cause an annual monetary loss of (in millions of Can$) $172, $104, $11, $3, and $0.3, respectively, for a total annual loss of $290 million if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs to control GR biotypes. The increased herbicide cost to control GR volunteer corn, horseweed, waterhemp, giant ragweed, and common ragweed in the major field crops in Ontario is estimated to be (in millions of Can$) $17, $9, $2, $0.1, and $0.02, respectively, for a total increase in herbicide expenditures of $28 million annually. Reduced GR weed interference with the adjusted weed management programs would reduce farm-gate monetary crop loss by 95% from $290 million to $15 million. This study estimates that GR weeds would reduce the farm-gate value of the major field crops produced in Ontario by Can$290 million annually if Ontario farmers did not adjust their weed management programs, but with increased herbicide costs of Can$28 million and reduced crop yield loss of 95% the actual annual monetary loss in Ontario is estimated to be Can$43 million annually.
Little information is available on the relative efficacy of Group 4 herbicides for glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed management in soybean. Five field research experiments were conducted in growers’ fields from 2020 to 2021 to determine GR horseweed control with Group 4 herbicides applied preplant (PP) alone and in a mixture. There was minimal soybean injury (≤4%) with herbicides evaluated. Dicamba, 2,4-D, or halauxifen-methyl applied PP controlled GR horseweed 92% to 96%, 73% to 76%, and 85% to 89%, respectively. The mixtures of dicamba + 2,4-D, dicamba + halauxifen-methyl and dicamba + 2,4-D + halauxifen-methyl provided 97% to 99% control of GR horseweed, similar to dicamba applied alone. The mixture of 2,4-D + halauxifen-methyl provided 93% to 94% control of GR horseweed. Dicamba + saflufenacil controlled GR horseweed at 98%. Dicamba alone, dicamba + 2,4-D ester, dicamba + halauxifen-methyl, and dicamba + 2,4-D ester + halauxifen-methyl decreased GR horseweed density 97%, 99%, 99%, and 98%, respectively, similar to a 98% density reduction with dicamba + saflufenacil. Other herbicide treatments had no effect on GR horseweed density. Dicamba, 2,4-D, and halauxifen-methyl applied PP decreased GR horseweed dry biomass by 99%, 76%, and 72%, respectively. The mixtures of dicamba + 2,4-D, dicamba + halauxifen-methyl, and dicamba + 2,4-D + halauxifen-methyl decreased GR horseweed dry biomass by 99% to 100%, similar to a 99% dry biomass reduction with dicamba + saflufenacil. The mixture of 2,4-D + halauxifen-methyl decreased GR horseweed dry biomass by 94%. Soybean yield was decreased by 61% when GR horseweed was left uncontrolled. Results show that Group 4 herbicides that include dicamba applied PP can be very effective in managing GR horseweed in soybean.
Many studies have documented the interaction between 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting and photosystem II (PSII)-inhibiting herbicides. Most have focused on the interaction between mesotrione and atrazine, with only a few studies characterizing the nature of the interaction between tolpyralate and atrazine. Therefore, five field experiments were conducted in Ontario, Canada, over a 3-yr period (2019 to 2021) to characterize the interaction between three rates of tolpyralate (15, 30, and 45 g ai ha−1) and three rates of atrazine (140, 280, and 560 g ai ha−1) for the control of seven annual weed species in corn (Zea mays L.). Tolpyralate at 30 or 45 g ha−1 applied with atrazine at 280 or 560 g ha−1 controlled velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), and wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) >90% at 8 wk after application (WAA). Tolpyralate and atrazine were synergistic at each rate combination for the control of A. theophrasti at 8 WAA. In contrast, A. retroflexus and S. arvensis control at 8 WAA was additive with each rate combination. At 8 WAA, C. album control was generally additive, but one rate combination was synergistic. Ambrosia artemisiifolia control at 8 WAA was synergistic with five rate combinations and additive with the other four. Barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] control at 8 WAA was additive with seven of the rate combinations and synergistic with two. Setaria spp. control at 8 WAA was synergistic with one more rate combination compared with E. crus-galli, but the two weed species shared the same synergistic rate combinations. This study concludes that extrapolation or broad classifications of the interaction between tolpyralate and atrazine would be inappropriate, as the interaction can vary due to herbicide rate, weed species, and the response parameter analyzed.
Tolpyralate is an herbicide that is usually mixed with atrazine for broad-spectrum weed control in corn. Previous research has provided information on the effective dose (ED) of tolpyralate applied alone and in a 1:33.3 mixture with atrazine; however, tolpyralate is commercially applied at a dose of 30 to 40 g ai ha−1 with a minimum of 560 g ai ha−1 of atrazine. Therefore, five field trials were conducted over 3 yr (2019 to 2021) to determine the ED of atrazine to complement 30 g ai ha−1 of tolpyralate to achieve 80%, 90%, and 95% control of seven weed species 2, 4, and 8 wk after application (WAA). Tolpyralate was applied alone and in a mixture with atrazine doses ranging from 50 to 2,000 g ai ha−1. At 8 WAA, the ED of atrazine for 95% control of velvetleaf, common ragweed, common lambsquarters, and wild mustard was below the minimum label dose of atrazine on the commercial tolpyralate label, ranging from 430 to 520 g ai ha−1, which supports the use of the minimum label dose of atrazine. In contrast, redroot pigweed required 1,231 g ai ha−1 of atrazine to complement tolpyralate for 95% control 8 WAA. At 8 WAA, barnyardgrass and a mixture of green foxtail and giant foxtail (Setaria spp.) were not controlled by 80%, 90%, or 95% with tolpyralate applied alone or co-applied with any dose of atrazine evaluated in this study. The results of this study conclude that tolpyralate + atrazine is highly efficacious on several weed species at atrazine doses of 40 to 130 g ai ha−1 below the label dose of 560 g ai ha−1, but the use of the higher dose of tolpyralate or another herbicide may be required to improve control of redroot pigweed and grass weed species.
The complementary modes of action of 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) and photosystem II (PSII) inhibitors have been credited for the synergistic weed control improvement of several species. Recent research discovered that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and subsequent lipid peroxidation is the cause of cell death by the glutamine synthetase inhibitor glufosinate. Therefore, a basis for synergy exists between glufosinate and HPPD inhibitors, but the interaction has not been well reported. Four field experiments were conducted in Ontario, Canada, in 2020 and 2021 to determine the interaction between HPPD-inhibiting (mesotrione and tolpyralate) and ROS-generating (atrazine, bromoxynil, bentazon, and glufosinate) herbicides on control of annual weed species in corn (Zea mays L.). The ROS generators were synergistic with the HPPD inhibitors and provided ≥95% control of velvetleaf (Abutilon theophrasti Medik.), except for tolpyralate + glufosinate, which was additive at 8 wk after application (WAA) and provided 87% control. Tank mixes of HPPD inhibitors plus ROS generators were synergistic for the control of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.), except for tolpyralate + glufosinate, which was antagonistic at 8 WAA. Tolpyralate + glufosinate was antagonistic for the control of barnyardgrass [Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.] and Setaria spp. at 8 WAA. Common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.) control at 8 WAA was synergistic and ≥95% with mesotrione plus atrazine, bromoxynil, or glufosinate and with tolpyralate plus bromoxynil or bentazon. Herbicide tank mixes were generally additive for the control of wild mustard (Sinapis arvensis L.) at 8 WAA, except for the synergistic tank mixes of tolpyralate plus atrazine or bromoxynil; however, each tank mix provided 97% to 100% control of S. arvensis. Results from this study demonstrate that co-application of ROS generators with mesotrione or tolpyralate controlled all broadleaf weed species >90% at 8 WAA, with the exceptions of A. artemisiifolia and C. album control with tolpyralate + glufosinate. Mesotrione plus PSII inhibitors controlled E. crus-galli and Setaria spp. 48 to 68 percentage points less than tolpyralate plus the respective PSII inhibitor at 8 WAA; however, mesotrione + glufosinate and tolpyralate + glufosinate controlled the grass weed species similarly.
Common bean and azuki bean are poor competitors with weeds and demonstrate sensitivity to herbicides used for weed control in soybean. S-metolachlor, flufenacet, and acetochlor are categorized as Group 15 herbicides and provide control of multiple annual grass and select small-seeded broadleaf weeds. By way of field trials near Exeter and Ridgetown, Ontario, in 2019, 2020, and 2021, four dry bean market classes (azuki, kidney, small red, and white bean) were evaluated for their tolerance to 1× established label rates and 2× rates of S-metolachlor (1,600 and 3,200 g ai ha−1), flufenacet (750 and 1,500 g ai ha−1) and acetochlor (1,700 and 3,400 g ai ha−1) applied preplant incorporated (PPI). Injury was evaluated by assessing visible injury symptoms, density, shoot biomass, height, seed moisture content, and seed yield. Azuki bean was more sensitive to the Group 15 herbicides than other dry bean market classes; the Group 15 herbicides caused a 12% reduction in azuki bean growth at 2 wk after emergence; growth reduction was ≤2% in the other bean classes. Flufenacet (2× rate) was the most injurious treatment, causing a 27% reduction in azuki bean yield. This study concludes that kidney, small red, and white bean have a sufficient margin of crop safety to flufenacet, acetochlor, and S-metolachlor applied PPI. Azuki bean was sensitive to flufenacet; additional research is needed to investigate azuki bean tolerance to acetochlor and S-metolachlor applied PPI.
Limited information exists on the critical time of weed removal (CTWR) with the currently used soybean cultivars in Ontario. A study consisting of eight field experiments was conducted from 2017 to 2019 in Ontario, Canada, to determine the impact of delayed postemergence (POST) herbicide application on soybean yield based on average weed height at application, days after crop emergence (DAE), accumulated crop heat units (CHU) from the date of planting, and soybean growth stage. The regression model estimated the weed size at herbicide application that led to 1%, 2.5%, and 5% yield loss in soybean was 9, 14, and 20 cm under low weed density (averaging 73 to 134 plants m−2) and 3, 4, and 6 cm under high weed density (143 to 153 plants m−2) conditions, respectively. The estimated DAE at herbicide application time that led to 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 25% yield loss in soybean was 24, 30, 37, and 53 DAE under low weed density and 8, 10, 14, and 23 DAE under high weed density, respectively. The predicted crop stage at herbicide application that resulted in 2.5%, 5%, 10%, and 25% yield loss in soybean was V4, V5, R2, and R5 under low weed density and VE, VC, V1, and V4 under high weed density, respectively. This study concludes that soybean yield loss is influenced by the weed density (low vs/high) and the time of the first POST herbicide application. When the first POST herbicide application was delayed until soybean was at the V2 stage the monetary loss was Can$20.46 and Can$221.20 ha−1 in low and high weed-density environments, respectively.
Tolpyralate is commonly mixed with atrazine for improved control of common annual weed species in corn production systems in the United States and Canada. Weed control efficacy with this mixture is enhanced with the addition of methylated seed oil (MSO) Concentrate®; however, there is little information on the efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine with other proprietary adjuvants. Therefore, four trials were conducted at field research sites in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate the efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine when applied with six different commercially available adjuvants on four annual broadleaf and two annual grass weed species in corn. The adjuvants evaluated were MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, LI 700®, and Merge®. A treatment of tolpyralate + atrazine applied with no adjuvant was also included in the study. For the control of velvetleaf and wild mustard, the adjuvants evaluated with tolpyralate + atrazine did not improve control. At 8 wk after application (WAA), the use of Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, MSO Concentrate®, or Merge® with tolpyralate + atrazine provided similar or greater control of common ragweed than tolpyralate + atrazine applied with LI 700®. At 8 WAA, the adjuvants performed similarly with tolpyralate + atrazine for the control of common lambsquarters; however, LI 700® was the only adjuvant that did not improve control compared to tolpyralate + atrazine applied without an adjuvant. At 8 WAA, MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, and Merge® improved control of barnyardgrass and foxtail species with tolpyralate + atrazine to a similar or greater level than Assist® Oil Concentrate, Agral® 90, and LI 700®. Overall, MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, or Merge® should be added to tolpyralate + atrazine for control of the myriad of weed species interfering with corn production.
The objectives of this study were to determine if the level and consistency of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed control prior to soybean planting can be improved by (i) adding halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D ester, saflufenacil, metribuzin, or dicamba to glufosinate, (ii) increasing the rate of glufosinate from 500 to 1,000 g ai ha–1, and (iii) adding 28% urea ammonium nitrate (UAN) as the carrier solution. During a 2-yr period (2020–2021), four field trials were conducted on commercial farms located in southwestern Ontario, Canada, with confirmed GR horseweed. Glufosinate controlled GR horseweed 65%, 66%, and 63% at 2, 4, and 8 wk after application (WAA), respectively, and reduced density and biomass 46% and 33% at 8 WAA, respectively. There was no improvement in GR horseweed control from the addition of halauxifen-methyl, 2,4-D ester or saflufenacil to glufosinate and no decrease in density and biomass, with the exception that the addition of saflufenacil to glufosinate reduced density 30% compared to glufosinate alone. The addition of metribuzin to glufosinate improved GR horseweed control by 22%, 22%, and 28% at 2, 4, and 8 WAA, respectively, and further reduced density and biomass 50% and 47%, respectively, at 8 WAA, respectively. The addition of dicamba to glufosinate improved GR horseweed control by 19%, 26%, and 30% at 2, 4, and 8 WAA, respectively, and further reduced density and biomass 54% and 60%, respectively, at 8 WAA. There was no improvement in GR horseweed control by increasing the rate of glufosinate from 500 to 1,000 g ai ha–1 or when using 28% UAN as the carrier solution. The addition of all herbicides to glufosinate, increasing the rate of glufosinate, or using 28% UAN as the carrier solution improved the consistency of GR horseweed control.
Tolpyralate is a 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase–inhibiting herbicide that is applied postemergence for control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds in corn. Current Canadian label recommendations for tolpyralate specify the addition of a methylated seed oil (MSO) adjuvant (MSO Concentrate®) for improved weed control. The efficacy of tolpyralate applied with other proprietary adjuvants has not been widely reported in the peer-reviewed literature. Therefore, four field trials were conducted in corn over 2020 and 2021 in Ontario, Canada, to evaluate MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90 (nonionic surfactant), Assist® Oil Concentrate (blended surfactant), Carrier® (blended surfactant), LI 700® (nonionic surfactant), and Merge® (blended surfactant) as adjuvants with tolpyralate for the control of annual broadleaf and grass weeds. At 8 wk after application (WAA), tolpyralate applied with MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, Carrier®, or Merge® controlled velvetleaf, wild mustard, barnyardgrass, and foxtail species similarly. These adjuvants also enhanced the efficacy of tolpyralate similarly for the control of common ragweed at 8 WAA with the exception that Agral® 90 was inferior to Merge®. At 8 WAA, tolpyralate controlled common lambsquarters the greatest when applied with MSO Concentrate®, Agral® 90, Carrier®, or Merge®; these adjuvants with the exception of Agral® 90 were superior to Assist® Oil Concentrate. At 8 WAA, tolpyralate applied with LI 700® controlled common ragweed, barnyardgrass, and foxtail species less than when tolpyralate was applied with the other adjuvants tested; control of these weed species with tolpyralate was not improved with LI 700® when compared to tolpyralate applied without an adjuvant. Overall, tolpyralate applied with either MSO Concentrate®, Carrier®, or Merge® controlled all annual broadleaf and grass weed species similarly or greater than tolpyralate applied without an adjuvant or tolpyralate with Agral® 90, Assist® Oil Concentrate, or LI 700® at 8 WAA.
Nine field experiments were conducted from 2017 to 2019 in Ontario to determine the impact of early weed interference on corn yield based on corn growth stage, days after emergence (DAE), accumulated crop heat units (CHU), and weed size. The predicted weed size at herbicide application that resulted in a 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% yield loss in corn was estimated to be 1, 4, 11, 53, non-estimable (N est.*), and N est.* cm under low weed density and 3, 5, 7, 11, 27, and N est.* cm under high weed density, respectively. The predicted DAE at herbicide application time that resulted in a 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% yield loss in corn was predicted to be 14, 20, 27, 44, N est.*, and N est.* DAE under low weed density and 5, 7, 11, 17, 25, and 59 DAE under high weed density, respectively. The predicted CHU from planting at herbicide application time that led to a 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% yield loss in corn was 468, 636, 821, 1,271, N est.*, and N est.* CHU from planting under low weed density and 207, 283, 385, 551, 972, and 1,748 CHU from planting under high weed density, respectively. The predicted crop stage at herbicide application that led to a 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 10%, 25%, and 50% yield loss in corn was V5, V6, V7, V11, N est.*, and N est.* under low weed density and V1, V2, V3, V4, V8, and V14 under high weed density, respectively. Results indicate that weeds must be controlled before they reach 7 cm in height, prior to 11 d after crop emergence, prior to 385 accumulated CHU from emergence, or prior to the V3 stage under high weed density to avoid greater than 5% yield loss.