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The Cretaceous chaetetid sponge Acanthochaetetes huauclillensis Sánchez-Beristain and García-Barrera is reported for the first time from the Aptian–Cenomanian Khalsi Formation, Ladakh Himalaya, India. Its low- to high-domical growth form could suggest an adaptation to either an environment with constant sedimentation rates, or to an irregular substrate. However, these growth forms also may indicate an absence of important environmental/sedimentological changes during the lifespan of the sponges. In addition, the growth form of this species suggests a calm, non-turbulent, reef-like microenvironment. Along with the other faunal assemblages, such as the rudists, corals, and the gastropod Nerinea, A. huauclillensis indicates a tropical to subtropical shallow marine carbonate platform setting. This new finding extends its stratigraphic range from the upper Hauterivian to the Aptian–Cenomanian interval in the eastern Tethyan realm.
A comprehensive analysing method has been required since long in the field of radiotherapy. The basic purpose of all techniques has been to deliver the prescribed dose safely to the target volume containing tumour and as well as to reduce dose to organs at risk (OARs). The detailed comparison between different treatment techniques is very difficult and inexplicit as well. The gradual improvement in imaging software has made easy to users to assess spatial arrangement of tumour, critical organs and isodose lines in the form of a single 3D representation that can be observed from all angles. The conformity index (CI) alone cannot provide practical information about treatment plans as it is a single isodose line quantity.
The aim of this study was to develop a new method to assess the degree of damage numerically for OARs along with CI assessment for the target.
Materials and Methods:
The radiotherapy plans of 30 patients of different sites, diagnosed as cancer, were selected for this study irrespective of gender. Out of 30 cases, 8 plans were of head and neck, 2 were of glyoblastoma (GBM), 10 were of pelvis, 5 were of left breast and other 5 were of oesophagus cancer. The mean age was 42 years ranging from 31 to 72 years. Patient’s consents were taken before starting the treatment and carried out this research. Risk factor (RF) for OARs depends on volume of irradiation (VVOI), total volume of the organ (VTVO) and tolerance dose (DTDO). All radiotherapy plans (Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) and Volumetric Modulated Arc Therapy (VMAT)) were generated using eclipse planning system, version 11.0 (Varian Medical System, Palo Alto, California, USA).
The formula developed to assess degree of damage of OARs including CI of the target is risk factor conformity index (RFC) = CI + RF. In head and neck cases, for right parotid, the maximum value of RF is 1·50 and minimum value is observed as 0·97. Optic nerve, brainstem and spinal cord are completely safe as their RF values are found to be 0 on RF scale.
RFC is a comprehensive evaluation tool encompassing a wider range of clinically relevant parameters, isodose volumes and tolerance dose of OARs. It is an advance analysing method to check both the qualitative and quantitative nature of a conformal plan, and at the same time, it assesses the degree of damage of OARs.
If RF ≥ 1, then OAR will be completely damaged as a result of irradiation.
If RF = 0, then OAR will remain safe totally during the course of irradiation.
Automatic cluster remover (ACR) settings regulate the end of milking by detaching the clusters based on milk flow dropping below a preset level, which needs to be standardised for different breeds of dairy animals based on their production. A study was conducted to find out the best ACR setting for milking Indian crossbred cows based on milkability, milking irregularities and milk quality. Fifty six crossbred dairy cows in lactations 1 to 4 were categorised into three groups based on the level of production; low (N = 16; <12 kg/d), medium (N = 32; 12–18 kg/d) and high (N = 08; >18 kg/d). The ACR settings tested were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 kg/min, keeping the vacuum level and pulsation settings constant. The ACR settings significantly (P < 0.01) affected the milk yield at all levels of production with a significant effect (P < 0.01) on machine-on time at 0.4 kg/min. The yield during the first 2 min of milking, average flow and peak flow rates were not affected at any level of production. The average electrical conductivity in milk was significantly (P < 0.01) lower for the low and medium yield cows without affecting the mean somatic cell count. At 0.4 kg/min, more cluster reattachments were needed because of significant amount of milk remaining in the udders post-cluster removal.
Nano-sized BiFeO3 were synthesized by sol-gel auto combustion method and report the effect of different annealing temperature (400 °C, 500 °C, 600 °C) on phase formation, morphology, magnetic and dielectric properties of synthesized bismuth ferrite (BiFeO3) nanoparticles. The phase formation of BFO nanoparticles were confirmed by X-ray diffraction pattern. Further, significant increment in particle size with increasing annealing temperature was estimated by field emission electron microscopy (FESEM). Magnetization curve showed the soft ferromagnetic behavior of the samples annealed at 400 OC and 500 OC that was explained on the basis of disturbance of spiral modulated long range antiferromagnetic order of bulk BFO. Dielectric response revealed decrease in dielectric constant with increasing annealing temperature. BFO is a room-temperature multiferroic material so it is potential candidate for various applications viz. Water waste treatment, gas sensors and photovoltaic cells in rural areas.
This article addresses the issue of passive resistance by the Jogi and Mirasi musician castes against the puritanical notions of their former patrons, Meos. After the Meo patrons embraced the Tablighi Jamaat's version of Islam, the Jogis and Mirasis feel pressured to give up performing. Their artistry is also their livelihood which they value very much. By using James Scott's understanding of ‘passive resistance’ and ‘hidden transcript’ this article shows the use of poetic art for passive resistance. In doing so, the Jogis and Mirasis do not compromise with the civility of the art and positively use the lyrics of their new songs against the Meo patrons’ versions of religious purity on one hand, and extremist Hinduism on the other. They, in fact, emphasize a version of righteousness that is universal and thus needs no organised religion.
A novel shape penta-band microstrip patch antenna is presented in this paper. The proposed antenna shows five operating frequencies and can be used for various wireless applications, i.e. 2.58 GHz for non-direct line of sight, wireless Internet service providers, and compatible with Navini Networks; 3.17 and 3.42 GHz for WiMAX; 4 GHz for C-band application such as weather radar systems; and 5.3 GHz for higher WLAN. Very small frequency ratios of the values 1.2286, 1.078, 1.169, and 1.325 are achieved between two consecutive resonant frequencies. Antenna design techniques for achieving five bands are presented and discussed step by step. The analysis is done by Ansoft HFSS v.15, and results are verified with experimental results of fabricated prototypes.
Zygogramma bicolorata Pallister is a potential biocontrol agent of Parthenium hysterophorus L. (Asteraceae). This study was carried out to understand the effect of abiotic (temperature and moisture) and biotic factors (age and reproductive status) on the induction and termination of diapause in Z. bicolorata. We also evaluated the effect of diapause on longevity and fecundity of Z. bicolorata. In Z. bicolorata the induction of diapause occurred between the months of July and December. No diapause was observed in May and June, which coincided with the commencement of the monsoon rains. The percentage of diapause induction in Z. bicolorata was found to increase from one generation to another as well as with the age of adults. Diapause significantly increased the fecundity of females as compared to the fecundity in pre-diapause conditions. Soil moisture (80% RH) played an important role in providing the conditions for initiation and termination of diapause. Similarly, 18.4 and 12.5% of diapause adults resumed their activity in 6 and 5 days when exposed to temperatures of 40° and 45° C for 2 h every day, respectively. Exposure of adults to low temperatures, i.e. 5° and 10° C induced 94.3 and 92.5% diapause, respectively, with no adult mortality. Thus, our findings reveal suitable conditions for preventing and inducing diapause in Z. bicolorata, which is of great importance in the suppression of P. hysterophorus. We discuss the implications of these findings in the control of P. hysterophorus.
The protozoan parasite Leishmania is endemic in large parts of the world which causes leishmaniasis. Its visceral form is fatal if not treated and is caused mostly by Leishmania donovani, Leishmania infantum and Leishmania chagasi. Given the difficulties linked to vector (sandfly) control and the lack of an effective vaccine, the control of leishmaniasis relies mostly on chemotherapy. Unfortunately, the prevalence of parasites becoming resistant to the first-line drug pentavalent antimony (SbV) is increasing worldwide. Few alternative drugs are available that includes amphotericin B, pentamidine and miltefosine (oral). Already, decreases in efficacy, resistance and toxicity have been noted against these drugs. Dry antileishmanial pipeline further indicates the slow pace of drug discovery in this field where resistance as a major barrier. Full understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the parasite is lagging. Since leishmaniasis is a neglected disease and occurs predominantly in the developing world largely, therefore, it is unaddressed. The pharma industry argues that development of the new drug is too costly and risky to invest in low return neglected diseases is very high. Research is also needed to identify new and effective drug targets. The lack of drug research and development for neglected diseases will require some new strategies. We have discussed the various cause of slow pace of antileishmanial drug discovery in this review to pay attention of researchers and also take the public and private initiative to make the process fast for new antileishmanial drug development.
In this paper, triple-band stacked microstrip patch antennas (MPAs) are presented with wide impedance bandwidth and suppressed cross-polarization level. Triangular and circular shaped slots are embedded in the patch of antenna. Slot-loaded microstrip patches are fed with meandered microstrip line supported by a semi-ground plane structure. Triangular shaped slot-loaded MPA shows triple resonance at frequencies 2.2, 4.45, and 5.3 GHz having bandwidth of 45.9, 19.23, and 15.67%, respectively. Circular shaped slot-loaded MPA also shows triple resonance at frequencies 2.2, 4.42, and 5.38 GHz having bandwidth of 50.24, 33.21, and 13.43%, respectively. Using circular slot in place of triangular; bandwidth of the first and the second band is improved by 4.34 and 13.98%, respectively. Both the proposed antennas show an omnidirectional radiation pattern at all three resonance frequencies in the xz-plane with almost 0 dBi gain. Both the proposed antennas are fabricated on a FR-4 epoxy substrate and show a minimum level of cross-polarization radiations.
A single-feed dual-band circularly polarized stacked microstrip patch antenna with a small-frequency ratio is presented. Two pair of orthogonal slits is cut on the lower circular patch for achieving circular polarization and truncated corner square patch is used as the upper parasitic element. The frequency ratio of the dual-band is 1.03. The 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth is 1.3% for the upper band and 1.1% for the lower band. Proposed structure is fabricated on the FR-4 epoxy substrate and fed by SMA connector. The measured results are in good agreement with the theoretical and simulated results. The antenna shows stable radiation characteristics in both bands of operation.
A single-fed circularly polarized microstrip antenna is proposed where the antenna structure exhibits truncated corners in the radiating square patch. The truncated corners square patch structure is loaded with a circular slot and is resonating at 2.25 GHz with circular polarization. Furthermore, the proposed antenna is stacked using an upper circular patch thus achieving a dual-band circularly polarized pattern. The dual-band antenna resonates at 2.25 GHz in the first band and with impedance bandwidth ranging from 4.4 to 5.5 GHz in the second band. The size of the proposed stacked structure is compact compared with the conventional circularly polarized stacked antenna designs. Proposed structures are fabricated and fed using Subminiature version A (SMA) connector. The measured results are in good agreement with the simulated. The antenna shows stable radiation characteristics for the entire band of operation.
Asymmetric slits loaded irregular shaped microstrip patch antenna with three different ground structures is proposed. All three antennas show triple band characteristics. First antenna with regular ground plane resonates at 1.95, 2.4, and 4.90 GHz with good radiation characteristics and shows right-hand circular polarization at 1.95 GHz. 18.75% of compactness is achieved with triple band characteristics. Further, same patch is used with different defected ground structures. Second antenna resonates at 1.85, 2.4, and 4.85 GHz with suppressed cross-polarization level and antenna shows right-hand circular polarization at 1.85 and 4.85 GHz. Compactness is further improved to the value of 22.91%. The third antenna resonates at 1.95, 2.4, and 4.85 GHz with better gain and radiation characteristics and antenna shows right-hand circular polarization at 1.95 and 2.4 GHz. The small frequency ratio f2/f1 is achieved and the value of f2/f1 is 1.29 and 1.23 for second and third configuration, respectively. Proposed structures show right-hand circularly polarized with suppressed left-hand circularly polarized radiations and suitable for fixed mobile wireless communication applications. All structures are analyzed using Ansoft HFSS v.14 based on finite element method and measured results satisfy the simulated results.
Insulin, transferrin and selenium (ITS) supplementation to oocyte maturation medium improves the post-fertilization embryonic development in pigs. ITS is also commonly used as a supplement for the in vitro culture (IVC) of embryos and stem cells in several mammalian species. However, its use during IVC of pig embryos has not been explored. This study investigated the effect of ITS supplementation to IVC medium on the in vitro development ability of pig embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation (PA), in vitro fertilization (IVF) or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). We observed that ITS had no significant effect on the rate of first cleavage (P > 0.05). However, the rate of blastocyst formation in ITS-treated PA (45.3 ± 1.9 versus 27.1 ± 2.3%), IVF (31.6 ± 0.6 versus 23.5 ± 0.6%) and SCNT (17.6 ± 2.3 versus 10.7 ± 1.4%) embryos was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those of non-treated controls. Culture of PA embryos in the presence of ITS also enhanced the expansion and hatching ability (29.1 ± 3.0 versus 18.2 ± 3.8%; P < 0.05) of blastocysts and increased the total number of cells per blastocyst (53 ± 2.5 versus 40.9 ± 2.6; P < 0.05). Furthermore, the beneficial effect of ITS on PA embryos was associated with significantly reduced level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) (20.0 ± 2.6 versus 46.9 ± 3.0). However, in contrast to PA embryos, ITS had no significant effect on the blastocyst quality of IVF and SCNT embryos (P > 0.05). Taken together, these data suggest that supplementation of ITS to the IVC medium exerts a beneficial but differential effect on pig embryos that varies with the method of embryo production in vitro.
Very recently, Cu3BiS3 has been suggested as an alternative material for photovoltaic (PV) thin-film technologies. In this work, we analyze the electronic and optical properties of Cu3BiY3 with the anion elements Y = S, Se, and Te, employing a first-principles approach within the density function theory. We find that the three Cu3BiY3 compounds have indirect band gaps and the gap energies are in the region of 1.2–1.7 eV. The energy dispersions of the lowest conduction bands are small, and therefore the direct gap energies are only ∼0.1 eV larger than the fundamental gap energies. The flat conduction bands are explained by the presence of localized Bi p-states in the band gap region. Flat energy dispersion implies a large optical absorption, and the calculations reveal that the absorption coefficient of Cu3BiY3 is larger than 105 cm−1 for photon energies of ∼2.5 eV. The absorption is stronger than other Cu-S based materials like CuInS2 and Cu2ZnSnS4. Thereby, Cu3BiY3 has the potential to be a suitable material in thin-film PV technologies.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of Gram-negative bacteria infection on ovarian steroid receptors, i.e. progesterone receptor (PR) and estradiol receptor (ER) during preimplantation days of pregnancy. A well established mouse model of Gram-negative bacteria infection was used to test this objective. Mice were treated with normal saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on day 0.5 of pregnancy and used to collect embryos and uterine horns on day 1.5 to day 4.42 preimplantation day of pregnancy. Total RNA was extracted and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to check the expression of PR and ER genes. The mRNA expression of PR and ER was altered in embryos and uterus of LPS-treated animals during preimplantation days of pregnancy studied. These results suggest that PR and ER play an important role in Gram-negative bacteria infection and induced implantation failure in mouse.
The effect of an external electric field during post-annealing on the device characteristics of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) bulk heterojunction solar cells was studied. The application of external electric field in forward bias resulted in significant enhancement in Voc and fill factor whereas devices annealed under reverse bias had an enhanced Jsc. Both forward and reverse bias annealing increased the shunt resistance. The Al - blend interface topography and carrier dynamics were studied using conducting atomic force microscopy and frequency dependent intensity modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS). The results indicate that post-annealing under external electric field can be used to engineer the interface composition to enhance the charge transport in bulk heterojunction solar cells to improve the device performance.
ZnO doped with transition metal (TM) thin films were grown by pulsed laser deposition. XRD pattern reveals that all the ZnTMO films have c-axis orientation normal to the substrate. The reciprocal space mapping shows that the crystallinity of ZnTMO film deteriorates at higher doping of TM. All the TM doped ZnO films have transmittance greater than 75% in the visible region. The band gap of the ZnTMO thin films shows red shift on doping with Ni and Cu where as blue shift is observed for Co and Mn which increases with TM concentration. The copper doped ZnO thin film shows green PL emission at 542 nm along with the band edge emission at 385 nm. But other TM doping shows only band edge emission (385nm) and its intensity decreases at higher doping percentage. The presence of non-polar E2high and E2lowRaman modes in thin films indicates that ‘TM’ doping do not alter the wurtzite structure of ZnO. The magnetic studies of the TM doped ZnO shows room temperature ferromagnetism
The effect of phase separation of the donor-acceptor (DA) blend on the dominant recombination mechanism in polymer-fullerene [(poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)] based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) cells has been investigated. Coarse (70-150 nm) and fine (20-25 nm) phase separated blends and corresponding devices were prepared using chlorobenzene (CB) and ortho-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DCB) as spin casting solvents respectively. Nanoscale mobility measurements indicated highly unbalanced charge transport in coarse morphology based (CB cast) devices. Linear dependence of short circuit current (Jsc) vs. light intensity (I) suggested first order monomolecular (MR) recombination in the fine phase separated devices (1,2-DCB cast) whereas sub-linearity suggested dominant role of bimolecular (BR) recombination in coarse phase separated devices (CB cast). Improved device efficiency of 1,2-DCB based devices (η ≈ 2.54 %) compared to CB (η ≈ 0.9 %) may be attributed to reduced BR recombination as a result of finer phase separation.
To identify factors contributing to missed diagnosis of aortopulmonary windows on initial echocardiographic examination; and to analyze lesions associated with these malformations.
Retrospective study where echocardiographic findings and per-operative findings of patients were correlated by reviewing records.
Tertiary-care paediatric cardiac centre.
From May 2002 to September 2007, we diagnosed 50 patients with aortopulmonary windows. The group included 31 boys and 19 girls. Mean age at intervention was 1.7 years, with a range from 3 months to 17 years.
The diagnosis of aortopulmonary window was made correctly by echocardiography during initial evaluation in 46 of 50 patients (92%). The remaining 4 patients were diagnosed either during repeat echocardiographic evaluation, cardiac catheterization, or per-operatively. We describe the details of these patients. Of the 50 patients, 23 had associated malformations, including ventricular septal defects in 10 patients, patent arterial ducts in 9, atrial septal defects or patent oval foramens in 5, 3 of whom also had patent arterial ducts, interruption of the aortic arch at the isthmus in 4, or between the left subclavian and common carotid arteries in 2, tetralogy of Fallot in 2, double-outlet right ventricle in 2, discordant ventriculo-arterial connections in 2, 1 of whom also had anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary trunk, and superior-inferior ventricles in 1 patient.
Even meticulous echocardiography may result in a false negative diagnosis of an aortopulmonary window. A high index of suspicion for this lesion is warranted in cases of unexplained severe pulmonary arterial hypertension, and/or unexplained cardiac dilation.