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This study identified possible risk factors for newly diagnosed mood disorders, including depressive and bipolar disorders, in prostate cancer patients.
From 2000 to 2006, two cohorts were evaluated on the occurrence of mood disorder diagnosis and treatment. For the first cohort, data of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer was obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance (NHI) Research Database. As the second cohort, a cancer-free comparison group was matched for age, comorbidities, geographic region, and socioeconomic status.
Final analyses involved 12,872 men with prostate cancer and 12,872 matched patients. Increased incidence of both depressive (IRR 1.52, 95% CI 1.30–1.79, P <0.001) and bipolar disorder (IRR 1.84, 95% CI 1.25–2.74, P = 0.001) was observed among patients diagnosed with prostate cancer. Multivariate matched regression models show that cerebrovascular disease (CVD) and radiotherapy treatment could be independent risk factors for developing subsequent depressive and bipolar disorders.
We observed that the risk of developing newly diagnosed depressive and bipolar disorders is higher among Taiwanese prostate cancer patients. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of increased depressive and bipolar disorders among prostate cancer patients in Taiwan. A prospective study is necessary to confirm these findings.
The Hospital Emergency Incident Command System (Hospital Emergency Incident Command System), nowin its third edition, has emerged asa popular incident command system model for hospital emergency response in the United States and other countries. Since the inception of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System in 1991, several events have transformed the requirements of hospital emergency management, including the 1995 Tokyo Subway sarin attack, the 2001 US anthrax letter attacks, and the 2003 Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) outbreaks in eastern Asia and Toronto, Canada.
Several modifications of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System are suggested to match the needs of hospital emergency management today, including: (1) an Incident Consultant in the Administrative Section of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System to provide expert advice directly to the Incident Commander in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear (CBRN) emergencies as needed, as well as consultation on mental health needs; (2) new unit leaders in the Operations Section to coordinate the management of contaminated or infectious patients in chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear emergencies; (3) new unit leaders in theOperations Section to coordinate mental health support for patients, guests, healthcare workers, volunteers, anddependents in terrorismrelated emergencies or events that produce significant mental health needs; (4) a new Decedent/Expectant Unit Leader in the Operations Section to coordinate the management of both types ofpatients together; and (5) a new Information Technology Unit Leader in the Logistics Section to coordinate the management of information technology and systems.
New uses of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System in hospital emergency management also are recommended, including: (1) the adoption of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System as the conceptual framework for organizing all phases of hospital emergency management, including mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery; and (2) the application of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System not only to healthcare facilities, but also to healthcare systems.
Finally, three levels of healthcare worker competencies in the Hospital Emergency Incident Command Systemare suggested: (1) basic understanding of the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System for all hospital healthcare workers; (2) advanced understanding and proficiency in the Hospital Emergency Incident Command Systemfor hospital healthcare workers likely to assume leadership roles in hospital emergency response; and (3) special proficiency in constituting the Hospital Emergency Incident Command System ad hoc from existing healthcare workers in resource-deficient settings. The Hospital Emergency Incident Command System should be viewed asa work in progress that will mature as additional challenges arise and ashospitals gain further experience with its use.
Numerous examples exist of the benefits of the timely access to information in emergencies and disasters. Information technology (IT) is playing an increasingly important role in information-sharing during emergencies and disasters.
The effective use of IT in out-of-hospital (OOH) disaster response is accompanied by numerous challenges at the human, applications, communication, and security levels.Most reports of IT applications to emergencies or disasters to date, concern applications that are hospital-based or occur during non-response phases of events (i.e., mitigation, planning and preparedness, or recovery phases). Few reports address the application of IT to OOH disaster response.
Wireless peer networks that involve ad hoc wireless routing networks and peer-to-peer application architectures offer a promising solution to the many challenges of information-sharing in OOH disaster response. These networks offer several services that are likely to improve information-sharing in OOH emergency response, including needs and capacity assessment databases, victim tracking, event logging, information retrieval, and overall incident management system support.
This article reviews the implications of mass-casualty, terrorist bombings for emergency department (ED) and hospital emergency responses. Several practical issues are considered, including the performance of a preliminary needs assessment, the mobilization of human and material resources, the use of personal protective equipment, the organization and performance of triage, the management of explosion-specific injuries, the organization of patient flow through the ED, and the efficient determination of patient disposition. As long as terrorists use explosions to achieve their goals, mass-casualty, terrorist bombings remain a required focus for hospital emergency planning and preparedness.
This article characterizes the epidemiological outcomes, resource utilization, and time course of emergency needs in mass-casualty, terrorist bombings producing 30 or more casualties.
Eligible bombings were identified using a MEDLINE search of articles published between 1996 and October 2002 and a manual search of published references. Mortality, injury frequency, injury severity, emergency department (ED) utilization, hospital admission, and time interval data were abstracted and relevant rates were determined for each bombing. Median values for the rates and the inter-quartile ranges (IQR) were determined for bombing subgroups associated with: (1) vehicle delivery; (2) terrorist suicide; (3) confined-space setting; (4) open-air setting; (5) structural collapse sequela; and (6) structural fire sequela.
Inclusion criteria were met by 44 mass-casualty, terrorist bombings reported in 61 articles. Median values for the immediate mortality rates and IQRs were: vehicle-delivery, 4% (1–25%); terrorist-suicide, 19% (7–44%); confined-space 4% (1–11%); open-air, 1% (0–5%); structural-collapse, 18% (5–26%); structural fire 17% (1–17%); and overall, 3% (1–14%). A biphasic pattern of mortality and unique patterns of injury frequency were noted in all subgroups. Median values for the hospital admission rates and IQRs were: vehicle-delivery, 19% (14–50%); terrorist-suicide, 58% (38–77%); confined-space, 52% (36–71%); open-air, 13% (11–27%); structural-collapse, 41% (23–74%); structural-fire, 34% (25–44%); and overall, 34% (14–53%). The shortest reported time interval from detonation to the arrival of the first patient at an ED was five minutes. The shortest reported time interval from detonation to the arrival of the last patient at an ED was 15 minutes. The longest reported time interval from detonation to extrication of a live victim from a structural collapse was 36 hours.
Epidemiological outcomes and resource utilization in mass-casualty, terrorist bombings vary with the characteristics of the event.
The lack of a universally applicable definition of terrorism has confounded the understanding of terrorism since the term was first coined in 18th Century France. Although a myriad of definitions of terrorism have been advanced over the years, virtually all of these definitions have been crisis-centered, frequently reflecting the political perspectives of those who seek to define it.
In this article, we deconstruct these previously used definitions of terrorism in order to reconstruct a definition of terrorism that is consequence-centered, medically relevant, and universally harmonized. A universal medical and public health definition of terrorism will facilitate clinical and scientific research, education, and communication about terrorism-related events or disasters.
We propose the following universal medical and public definition of terrorism: The intentional use of violence — real or threatened — against one or more non-combatants and/or those services essential for or protective of their health, resulting in adverse health effects in those immediately affected and their community, ranging from a loss of well-being or security to injury, illness, or death.
The Republic of China on the island of Taiwan has experienced at least 20 terrorist events since 1979, including 13 aircraft hijackings and five bombings. Factors responsible for the relatively small burden of terrorism on Taiwan in the past include tight military control over political dissent until 1987, a warming relationship with the People's Republic of China in the 1990s, political inclusion of major internal cultural groups, geographic isolation, and a lack of other significant international enemies. Nevertheless, today Taiwan faces a new prospect of terrorism by adversaries of the United States and its allies and by an international paradigm shift in the types of weapons used by terrorists.
National emergency management has been enhanced significantly since the Ji Ji earthquake in 1999, including the assignment of lead government agencies to the planning and preparedness for specific types of terrorist events involving nuclear, biological, and/or chemical releases. Other significant improvements at the operations level, include the establishment of two national disaster medical assistance teams, four urban search and rescue teams, 13 local disaster medical assistance teams, and eight chemical emergency response hospitals. Future challenges include improving the coordination of inter-agency response at the national level and the quantity and quality of local disaster response assets.
To assess the current level of development of emergency medicine (EM) systems in the world.
Survey of EM professionals from 36 countries during a 90-day period from Aug. 25 to Nov. 24, 1998.
Thirty-six EM professionals from 36 countries and 6 continents completed the survey. Thirty-five (97%) were physicians, of whom 25 (69%) gave presentations at 1 of 4 international EM conferences during the study period. Three potential participants from 3 countries were excluded because of language barriers. Five additional participants from 5 other countries did not respond within the study period and were excluded.
Respondents completed a 103-question questionnaire about the presence of EM specialty, academic, patient care, information and management systems and the factors influencing the future of EM in their countries.
The overall response rate was 88%. Nearly all respondents (97%) stated that their countries had hospital-based emergency departments (EDs). More than 80% of respondents reported that their countries have emergency medical services (EMS), national EMS activation phone numbers and ED systems for pediatric emergency care. More than 70% stated that their countries had national EM organizations, EM research, ED systems for patient transfer and peer review and emergency physician (EP) training in Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) and the ability to perform rapid sequence intubation. More than 60% reported ED systems for trauma care and triage and EP training in Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) and the ability to perform thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction. Fifty percent reported EM residency training programs, official recognition of EM as an independent specialty, and EM journals.
Basic emergency medicine components now exist in the majority of countries surveyed. These include many specialty, academic, patient care and administrative systems. The foundation for further EM development is widely established throughout the world.